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Title: The journey from forensic to predictive materials science using density functional theory

Abstract

Approximate methods for electronic structure, implemented in sophisticated computer codes and married to ever-more powerful computing platforms, have become invaluable in chemistry and materials science. The maturing and consolidation of quantum chemistry codes since the 1980s, based upon explicitly correlated electronic wave functions, has made them a staple of modern molecular chemistry. Here, the impact of first principles electronic structure in physics and materials science had lagged owing to the extra formal and computational demands of bulk calculations.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1399567
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-8829J
Journal ID: ISSN 0965-0393; 656330
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0965-0393
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Schultz, Peter A. The journey from forensic to predictive materials science using density functional theory. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-651X/aa8846.
Schultz, Peter A. The journey from forensic to predictive materials science using density functional theory. United States. doi:10.1088/1361-651X/aa8846.
Schultz, Peter A. Tue . "The journey from forensic to predictive materials science using density functional theory". United States. doi:10.1088/1361-651X/aa8846.
@article{osti_1399567,
title = {The journey from forensic to predictive materials science using density functional theory},
author = {Schultz, Peter A.},
abstractNote = {Approximate methods for electronic structure, implemented in sophisticated computer codes and married to ever-more powerful computing platforms, have become invaluable in chemistry and materials science. The maturing and consolidation of quantum chemistry codes since the 1980s, based upon explicitly correlated electronic wave functions, has made them a staple of modern molecular chemistry. Here, the impact of first principles electronic structure in physics and materials science had lagged owing to the extra formal and computational demands of bulk calculations.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-651X/aa8846},
journal = {Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering},
number = 7,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 12 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Sep 12 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on September 12, 2018
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  • In this paper, four methods to calculate charge transfer integrals in the context of bridge-mediated electron transfer are tested. These methods are based on density functional theory (DFT). We consider two perturbative Green's function effective Hamiltonian methods (first, at the DFT level of theory, using localized molecular orbitals; second, applying a tight-binding DFT approach, using fragment orbitals) and two constrained DFT implementations with either plane-wave or local basis sets. To assess the performance of the methods for through-bond (TB)-dominated or through-space (TS)-dominated transfer, different sets of molecules are considered. For through-bond electron transfer (ET), several molecules that were originally synthesizedmore » by Paddon-Row and co-workers for the deduction of electronic coupling values from photoemission and electron transmission spectroscopies, are analyzed. The tested methodologies prove to be successful in reproducing experimental data, the exponential distance decay constant and the superbridge effects arising from interference among ET pathways. For through-space ET, dedicated p-stacked systems with heterocyclopentadiene molecules were created and analyzed on the basis of electronic coupling dependence on donor-acceptor distance, structure of the bridge, and ET barrier height. The inexpensive fragment-orbital density functional tight binding (FODFTB) method gives similar results to constrained density functional theory (CDFT) and both reproduce the expected exponential decay of the coupling with donor-acceptor distances and the number of bridging units. Finally, these four approaches appear to give reliable results for both TB and TS ET and present a good alternative to expensive ab initio methodologies for large systems involving long-range charge transfers.« less
  • Cerium and its technologically relevant compounds are examples of anomalous mixed valency, originating from two competing oxidation states—itinerant Ce4+ and localized Ce3+. Under applied stress, anomalous transitions are observed but not well understood. Here we treat mixed valency as an “alloy” problem involving two valences with competing and numerous site-occupancy configurations. We use density-functional theory with Hubbard U (i.e., DFT+U) to evaluate the effective valence and predict properties, including controlling the valence by pseudoternary alloying. For Ce and its compounds, such as (Ce,La)2(Fe,Co)14B permanent magnets, we find a stable mixed-valent α state near the spectroscopic value of νs=3.53. Ce valencymore » in compounds depends on its steric volume and local chemistry. For La doping, Ce valency shifts towards γ-like Ce3+, as expected from steric volume; for Co doping, valency depends on local Ce-site chemistry and steric volume. Our approach captures the key origins of anomalous valency and site-preference chemistry in complex compounds.« less
  • The authors present isotherms calculated from density functional theory for the adsorption of argon in model slit-shaped carbon pores at 77 K. The model isotherms are used to interpret experimental argon uptake measurements and to obtain the pore size distributions of several porous carbons. A similar set of density measurements and to obtain the pore size distributions of several porous carbons. A similar set of density functional theory isotherms, previously reported for nitrogen adsorption on carbon slit pores at 77 K, are used to determine pore size distributions for the same set of carbons. The pore size distribution maxima, meanmore » pore widths, and specific pore volumes measured using the two different probe gases are all found to agree to within approximately 8% on average. Some of the differences in the pore size distributions obtained from argon and nitrogen porosimetry may be attributable to quadrupolar interactions of the nitrogen molecules with functional groups on the carbon surface.« less