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Title: Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

Abstract

It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work.The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements. The final system development for EV implementation has occurred on a mid-range EV and has been evaluated for its capability to extend the driving range. Both simulated driving in a climatic tunnel and actual road testing have been carried out. The ePATHS has demonstrated its ability to supply the entire cabin heating needs for amore » round trip commute totaling 46 minutes, including 8 hours of parking, at an ambient temperature of -10°C.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3];  [3]
  1. MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.
  2. ORNL
  3. Ford Motor Company
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1399451
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Volume: 1; Conference: 2017 SAE World Congress - Detroit, Michigan, United States of America - 4/4/2017 4:00:00 AM-4/6/2017 4:00:00 AM
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Wang, Mingyu, Craig, Timothy, Wolfe, Edward, LaClair, Tim J., Gao, Zhiming, Levin, Michael, Demitroff, Danrich, and Shaikh, Furqan. Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0183.
Wang, Mingyu, Craig, Timothy, Wolfe, Edward, LaClair, Tim J., Gao, Zhiming, Levin, Michael, Demitroff, Danrich, & Shaikh, Furqan. Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating. United States. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0183.
Wang, Mingyu, Craig, Timothy, Wolfe, Edward, LaClair, Tim J., Gao, Zhiming, Levin, Michael, Demitroff, Danrich, and Shaikh, Furqan. Wed . "Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating". United States. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0183. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399451.
@article{osti_1399451,
title = {Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating},
author = {Wang, Mingyu and Craig, Timothy and Wolfe, Edward and LaClair, Tim J. and Gao, Zhiming and Levin, Michael and Demitroff, Danrich and Shaikh, Furqan},
abstractNote = {It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work.The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements. The final system development for EV implementation has occurred on a mid-range EV and has been evaluated for its capability to extend the driving range. Both simulated driving in a climatic tunnel and actual road testing have been carried out. The ePATHS has demonstrated its ability to supply the entire cabin heating needs for a round trip commute totaling 46 minutes, including 8 hours of parking, at an ambient temperature of -10°C.},
doi = {10.4271/2017-01-0183},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • Cabin heating of current electric vehicle (EV) designs is typically provided using electrical energy from the traction battery, since waste heat is not available from an engine as in the case of a conventional automobile. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required for space heating of an EV can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, its driving range can be reduced very significantly during the winter season, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to themore » EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage from an advanced phase change material (PCM) has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The present paper focuses on the modeling and analysis of this electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) and is a companion to the paper Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating. A detailed heat transfer model was developed to simulate the PCM heat exchanger that is at the heart of the ePATHS and was subsequently used to analyze and optimize its design. The results from this analysis were integrated into a MATLAB Simulink system model to simulate the fluid flow, pressure drop and heat transfer in all components of the ePATHS. The system model was then used to predict the performance of the climate control system in the vehicle and to evaluate control strategies needed to achieve the desired temperature control in the cabin. The analysis performed to design the ePATHS is described in detail and the system s predicted performance in a vehicle HVAC system is presented.« less
  • Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs tomore » achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.« less
  • The cost of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) (e.g., Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid) remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost-benefit relationship, which would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with a United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Workgroup to analyze trade-offsmore » between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL's analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than previous targets, which prompted the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies, including high-power batteries or ultracapacitors. NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform and in-vehicle evaluation results using a lithium-ion capacitor ESS-an asymmetric electrochemical energy storage device possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). Further efforts include testing other ultracapacitor technologies in the HEV test platform.« less
  • This paper discusses the design options for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, including power, energy, and operating strategy as they relate to the energy storage system.
  • Provides an overview on the design of energy storage systems for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.