skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: GPS signal loss in the wide area monitoring system: Prevalence, impact, and solution

Abstract

The phasor measurement unit (PMUs), equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers for precise time synchronization, provides measurements of voltage and current phasors at different nodes of the wide area monitoring system. However, GPS receivers are likely to lose satellite signals due to various unpredictable factors. The prevalence of GPS signal loss (GSL) on PMUs is first investigated using real PMU data. The historical GSL events are extracted from a phasor data concentrator (PDC) and FNET/GridEye server. The correlation between GSL and time, spatial location, solar activity are explored via comprehensive statistical analysis. Furthermore, the impact of GSL on phasor measurement accuracy has been studied via experiments. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate the impact of GSL on PMUs are discussed and compared.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1399392
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Electric Power Systems Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 147; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7796
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; FNET/GridEye; GPS signal loss; Phasor data concentrators; Phasor measurement unit; Wide area monitoring system

Citation Formats

Yao, Wenxuan, Zhou, Dao, Zhan, Lingwei, Liu, Yong, Cui, Yi, You, Shutang, and Liu, Yilu. GPS signal loss in the wide area monitoring system: Prevalence, impact, and solution. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2017.03.004.
Yao, Wenxuan, Zhou, Dao, Zhan, Lingwei, Liu, Yong, Cui, Yi, You, Shutang, & Liu, Yilu. GPS signal loss in the wide area monitoring system: Prevalence, impact, and solution. United States. doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2017.03.004.
Yao, Wenxuan, Zhou, Dao, Zhan, Lingwei, Liu, Yong, Cui, Yi, You, Shutang, and Liu, Yilu. Sun . "GPS signal loss in the wide area monitoring system: Prevalence, impact, and solution". United States. doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2017.03.004. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399392.
@article{osti_1399392,
title = {GPS signal loss in the wide area monitoring system: Prevalence, impact, and solution},
author = {Yao, Wenxuan and Zhou, Dao and Zhan, Lingwei and Liu, Yong and Cui, Yi and You, Shutang and Liu, Yilu},
abstractNote = {The phasor measurement unit (PMUs), equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers for precise time synchronization, provides measurements of voltage and current phasors at different nodes of the wide area monitoring system. However, GPS receivers are likely to lose satellite signals due to various unpredictable factors. The prevalence of GPS signal loss (GSL) on PMUs is first investigated using real PMU data. The historical GSL events are extracted from a phasor data concentrator (PDC) and FNET/GridEye server. The correlation between GSL and time, spatial location, solar activity are explored via comprehensive statistical analysis. Furthermore, the impact of GSL on phasor measurement accuracy has been studied via experiments. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate the impact of GSL on PMUs are discussed and compared.},
doi = {10.1016/j.epsr.2017.03.004},
journal = {Electric Power Systems Research},
number = C,
volume = 147,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Mar 19 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sun Mar 19 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • The wide area monitoring system (WAMS) is considered a pivotal component of future electric power grids. As a pilot WAMS that has been operated for more than a decade, the frequency monitoring network FNET/GridEye makes use of hundreds of global positioning system-synchronized phasor measurement sensors to capture the increasingly complicated grid behaviors across the interconnected power systems. In this paper, the FNET/GridEye system is overviewed and its operation experiences in electric power grid wide area monitoring are presented. Particularly, the implementation of a number of data analytics applications will be discussed in details. FNET/GridEye lays a firm foundation for themore » later WAMS operation in the electric power industry.« less
  • The scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system uses an inverse geometry, narrow x-ray beam, and a 2-mm thick CdTe detector to improve the dose efficiency of the coronary angiographic procedure. Entrance exposure and large-area iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured with the SBDX prototype and compared to that of a clinical cardiac interventional system with image intensifier (II) and charge coupled device (CCD) camera (Philips H5000, MRC-200 x-ray tube, 72 kWp max). Phantoms were 18.6-35.0 cm acrylic with an iohexol-equivalent disk placed at midthickness (35 mg/cm{sup 2} iodine radiographic density). Imaging was performed at 15 frame/s, with the disk at mechanicalmore » isocenter and an 11-cm object-plane field width. The II/CCD system was operated in cine mode with automatic exposure control. With the SBDX prototype at maximum x-ray output (120 kVp, 24.3 kWp), the SBDX SNR was 107%-69% of the II/CCD SNR, depending on phantom thickness, and the SBDX entrance exposure rate was 10.7-9.3 R/min (9.4-8.2 cGy/min air kerma). For phantoms where an equal-kVp imaging comparison was possible ({>=}23.3 cm), the SBDX SNR ranged from 47% to 69% of the II/CCD SNR while delivering 6% to 9% of the II/CCD entrance exposure rate. From these measurements it was determined that the relative SBDX entrance exposure at equal SNR would be 31%-16%. Results were consistent with a model for relative entrance exposure at equal SNR, which predicted a 3-7 times reduction in entrance exposure due to SBDX's comparatively low scatter fraction (5.5%-8.1% measured, including off-focus radiation), high detector detective quantum efficiency (66%-73%, measured from 70 to 120 kVp), and large entrance field area (1.7x-2.3x, for the same object-plane field width). With improvements to the system geometry, detector, and x-ray source, SBDX technology is projected to achieve conventional cine-quality SNR over a full range of patient thicknesses, with 5-10 times lower skin dose.« less
  • Abstract paper which would like to be considered for submission to the MARC IX Conference as well as for the future publication in the Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry.
  • Cyber security and resiliency of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) applications is critically important to ensure secure, reliable, and economic operation of the bulk power system. WAMPAC relies heavily on the security of measurements and control commands transmitted over wide-area communication networks for real-time operational, protection, and control functions. Also, the current “N-1 security criteria” for grid operation is inadequate to address malicious cyber events and therefore it is important to fundamentally redesign WAMPAC and to enhance Energy Management System (EMS) applications to make them attack-resilient. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end defense-in-depth architecture for attack-resilient WAMPAC thatmore » addresses resilience at both the infrastructure layer and the application layers. Also, we propose an attack-resilient cyber-physical security framework that encompasses the entire security life cycle including risk assessment, attack prevention, attack detection, attack mitigation, and attack resilience. The overarching objective of this paper is to provide a broad scope that comprehensively describes most of the major research issues and potential solutions in the context of cyber-physical security of WAMPAC for the power grid.« less
  • We present initial results from time-series imaging at infrared wavelengths of 0.9 deg{sup 2} in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). During Fall 2009 we obtained 81 epochs of Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m data over 40 consecutive days. We extracted light curves with {approx}3% photometric accuracy for {approx}2000 ONC members ranging from several solar masses down to well below the hydrogen-burning mass limit. For many of the stars, we also have time-series photometry obtained at optical (I{sub c} ) and/or near-infrared (JK{sub s}) wavelengths. Our data set can be mined to determine stellar rotation periods, identify new pre-main-sequence eclipsing binaries,more » search for new substellar Orion members, and help better determine the frequency of circumstellar disks as a function of stellar mass in the ONC. Our primary focus is the unique ability of 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m variability information to improve our understanding of inner disk processes and structure in the Class I and II young stellar objects (YSOs). In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the YSOVAR Orion data obtained in Fall 2009 and highlight our light curves for AA-Tau analogs-YSOs with narrow dips in flux, most probably due to disk density structures passing through our line of sight. Detailed follow-up observations are needed in order to better quantify the nature of the obscuring bodies and what this implies for the structure of the inner disks of YSOs.« less