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Title: Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO 2 additive for rare-event detection

Abstract

Xe–CO 2 mixtures are important alternatives to pure xenon in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) based on secondary scintillation (electroluminescence) signal amplification with applications in the important field of rare event detection such as directional dark matter, double electron capture and double beta decay detection. The addition of CO 2 to pure xenon at the level of 0.05–0.1% can reduce significantly the scale of electron diffusion from 10 mm / √m to 2.5mm / √m, with high impact on the discrimination efficiency of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionization trails. We have measured the electroluminescence (EL) yield of Xe–CO 2 mixtures, with sub-percent CO 2 concentrations. We demonstrate that the EL production is still high in these mixtures, 70% and 35% relative to that produced in pure xenon, for CO 2 concentrations around 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. In conclusion, the contribution of the statistical fluctuations in EL production to the energy resolution increases with increasing CO 2 concentration, being smaller than the contribution of the Fano factor for concentrations below 0.1% CO 2.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1399104
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-17-225-CD-ND; arXiv:1704.01623
Journal ID: ISSN 0370-2693; 1626912
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics Letters. Section B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 773; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0370-2693
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Double beta decay; Neutrino; Rare event detection; Electroluminescence; Secondary scintillation; Xenon

Citation Formats

Henriques, C. A. O., Freitas, E. D. C., Azevedo, C. D. R., González-Díaz, D., Mano, R. D. P., Jorge, M. R., Fernandes, L. M. P., Monteiro, C. M. B., Gómez-Cadenas, J. J., Álvarez, V., Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M., Borges, F. I. G. M., Botas, A., Cárcel, S., Carríon, J. V., Cebrían, S., Conde, C. A. N., Díaz, J., Diesburg, M., Esteve, R., Felkai, R., Ferrario, P., Ferreira, A. L., Goldschmidt, A., Gutiérrez, R. M., Hauptman, J., Hernandez, A. I., Hernando Morata, J. A., Herrero, V., Jones, B. J. P., Labarga, L., Laing, A., Lebrun, P., Liubarsky, I., López-March, N., Losada, M., Martín-Albo, J., Martínez-Lema, G., Martínez, A., McDonald, A. D., Monrabal, F., Mora, F. J., Moutinho, L. M., Muñoz Vidal, J., Musti, M., Nebot-Guinot, M., Novella, P., Nygren, D. R., Palmeiro, B., Para, A., Pérez, J., Querol, M., Renner, J., Ripoll, L., Rodríguez, J., Rogers, L., Santos, F. P., dos Santos, J. M. F., Simón, A., Sofka, C., Sorel, M., Stiegler, T., Toledo, J. F., Torrent, J., Tsamalaidze, Z., Veloso, J. F. C. A., Webb, R., White, J. T., and Yahlali, N. Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO2 additive for rare-event detection. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2017.09.017.
Henriques, C. A. O., Freitas, E. D. C., Azevedo, C. D. R., González-Díaz, D., Mano, R. D. P., Jorge, M. R., Fernandes, L. M. P., Monteiro, C. M. B., Gómez-Cadenas, J. J., Álvarez, V., Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M., Borges, F. I. G. M., Botas, A., Cárcel, S., Carríon, J. V., Cebrían, S., Conde, C. A. N., Díaz, J., Diesburg, M., Esteve, R., Felkai, R., Ferrario, P., Ferreira, A. L., Goldschmidt, A., Gutiérrez, R. M., Hauptman, J., Hernandez, A. I., Hernando Morata, J. A., Herrero, V., Jones, B. J. P., Labarga, L., Laing, A., Lebrun, P., Liubarsky, I., López-March, N., Losada, M., Martín-Albo, J., Martínez-Lema, G., Martínez, A., McDonald, A. D., Monrabal, F., Mora, F. J., Moutinho, L. M., Muñoz Vidal, J., Musti, M., Nebot-Guinot, M., Novella, P., Nygren, D. R., Palmeiro, B., Para, A., Pérez, J., Querol, M., Renner, J., Ripoll, L., Rodríguez, J., Rogers, L., Santos, F. P., dos Santos, J. M. F., Simón, A., Sofka, C., Sorel, M., Stiegler, T., Toledo, J. F., Torrent, J., Tsamalaidze, Z., Veloso, J. F. C. A., Webb, R., White, J. T., & Yahlali, N. Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO2 additive for rare-event detection. United States. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2017.09.017.
Henriques, C. A. O., Freitas, E. D. C., Azevedo, C. D. R., González-Díaz, D., Mano, R. D. P., Jorge, M. R., Fernandes, L. M. P., Monteiro, C. M. B., Gómez-Cadenas, J. J., Álvarez, V., Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M., Borges, F. I. G. M., Botas, A., Cárcel, S., Carríon, J. V., Cebrían, S., Conde, C. A. N., Díaz, J., Diesburg, M., Esteve, R., Felkai, R., Ferrario, P., Ferreira, A. L., Goldschmidt, A., Gutiérrez, R. M., Hauptman, J., Hernandez, A. I., Hernando Morata, J. A., Herrero, V., Jones, B. J. P., Labarga, L., Laing, A., Lebrun, P., Liubarsky, I., López-March, N., Losada, M., Martín-Albo, J., Martínez-Lema, G., Martínez, A., McDonald, A. D., Monrabal, F., Mora, F. J., Moutinho, L. M., Muñoz Vidal, J., Musti, M., Nebot-Guinot, M., Novella, P., Nygren, D. R., Palmeiro, B., Para, A., Pérez, J., Querol, M., Renner, J., Ripoll, L., Rodríguez, J., Rogers, L., Santos, F. P., dos Santos, J. M. F., Simón, A., Sofka, C., Sorel, M., Stiegler, T., Toledo, J. F., Torrent, J., Tsamalaidze, Z., Veloso, J. F. C. A., Webb, R., White, J. T., and Yahlali, N. 2017. "Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO2 additive for rare-event detection". United States. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2017.09.017. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399104.
@article{osti_1399104,
title = {Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO2 additive for rare-event detection},
author = {Henriques, C. A. O. and Freitas, E. D. C. and Azevedo, C. D. R. and González-Díaz, D. and Mano, R. D. P. and Jorge, M. R. and Fernandes, L. M. P. and Monteiro, C. M. B. and Gómez-Cadenas, J. J. and Álvarez, V. and Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M. and Borges, F. I. G. M. and Botas, A. and Cárcel, S. and Carríon, J. V. and Cebrían, S. and Conde, C. A. N. and Díaz, J. and Diesburg, M. and Esteve, R. and Felkai, R. and Ferrario, P. and Ferreira, A. L. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gutiérrez, R. M. and Hauptman, J. and Hernandez, A. I. and Hernando Morata, J. A. and Herrero, V. and Jones, B. J. P. and Labarga, L. and Laing, A. and Lebrun, P. and Liubarsky, I. and López-March, N. and Losada, M. and Martín-Albo, J. and Martínez-Lema, G. and Martínez, A. and McDonald, A. D. and Monrabal, F. and Mora, F. J. and Moutinho, L. M. and Muñoz Vidal, J. and Musti, M. and Nebot-Guinot, M. and Novella, P. and Nygren, D. R. and Palmeiro, B. and Para, A. and Pérez, J. and Querol, M. and Renner, J. and Ripoll, L. and Rodríguez, J. and Rogers, L. and Santos, F. P. and dos Santos, J. M. F. and Simón, A. and Sofka, C. and Sorel, M. and Stiegler, T. and Toledo, J. F. and Torrent, J. and Tsamalaidze, Z. and Veloso, J. F. C. A. and Webb, R. and White, J. T. and Yahlali, N.},
abstractNote = {Xe–CO2 mixtures are important alternatives to pure xenon in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) based on secondary scintillation (electroluminescence) signal amplification with applications in the important field of rare event detection such as directional dark matter, double electron capture and double beta decay detection. The addition of CO2 to pure xenon at the level of 0.05–0.1% can reduce significantly the scale of electron diffusion from 10 mm / √m to 2.5mm / √m, with high impact on the discrimination efficiency of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionization trails. We have measured the electroluminescence (EL) yield of Xe–CO2 mixtures, with sub-percent CO2 concentrations. We demonstrate that the EL production is still high in these mixtures, 70% and 35% relative to that produced in pure xenon, for CO2 concentrations around 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. In conclusion, the contribution of the statistical fluctuations in EL production to the energy resolution increases with increasing CO2 concentration, being smaller than the contribution of the Fano factor for concentrations below 0.1% CO2.},
doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2017.09.017},
journal = {Physics Letters. Section B},
number = C,
volume = 773,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

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  • Xe–CO 2 mixtures are important alternatives to pure xenon in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) based on secondary scintillation (electroluminescence) signal amplification with applications in the important field of rare event detection such as directional dark matter, double electron capture and double beta decay detection. The addition of CO 2 to pure xenon at the level of 0.05–0.1% can reduce significantly the scale of electron diffusion from 10 mm / √m to 2.5mm / √m, with high impact on the discrimination efficiency of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionization trails. We have measured the electroluminescence (EL)more » yield of Xe–CO 2 mixtures, with sub-percent CO 2 concentrations. We demonstrate that the EL production is still high in these mixtures, 70% and 35% relative to that produced in pure xenon, for CO 2 concentrations around 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. In conclusion, the contribution of the statistical fluctuations in EL production to the energy resolution increases with increasing CO 2 concentration, being smaller than the contribution of the Fano factor for concentrations below 0.1% CO 2.« less
  • Liquid xenon (LXe) is an excellent material for experiments designed to detect dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A low energy detection threshold is essential for a sensitive WIMP search. The understanding of the relative scintillation efficiency (L{sub eff}) and ionization yield of low energy nuclear recoils in LXe is limited for energies below 10 keV. In this article, we present new measurements that extend the energy down to 4 keV, finding that L{sub eff} decreases with decreasing energy. We also measure the quenching of scintillation efficiency caused by the electric field in LXe, findingmore » no significant field dependence.« less
  • An unidimensional Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the secondary scintillation (electroluminescence) intensity in xenon gas proportional scintillation counters. Other transport parameters like electron drift time, average number of collisions, efficiency for light production and induced charge pulse amplitude are also calculated. The values obtained agree well with the experimental data available.