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Title: Where ice is not: The liquid phase in the sea ice model CICE

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  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
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Resource Relation:
Conference: Mathematics of sea ice phenomena programme, Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences ; 2017-10-02 - 2017-10-02 ; Cambridge, United Kingdom
Country of Publication:
United States
Earth Sciences

Citation Formats

Hunke, Elizabeth Clare. Where ice is not: The liquid phase in the sea ice model CICE. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Hunke, Elizabeth Clare. Where ice is not: The liquid phase in the sea ice model CICE. United States.
Hunke, Elizabeth Clare. 2017. "Where ice is not: The liquid phase in the sea ice model CICE". United States. doi:.
title = {Where ice is not: The liquid phase in the sea ice model CICE},
author = {Hunke, Elizabeth Clare},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =

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  • Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring andmore » fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.« less
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  • A careful re-analysis of the recent EMC polarized target experiment is carried out in the hope of avoiding the startling conclusion that only 1/8 of the proton's spin is due to the spin of its valence quarks. Inconsistencies in the original analysis are corrected and the role of g{sub 2}(x) and of possible vector diquark constituents is examined. A new result for g{sub 2}(x) in the parton model is presented.
  • Experimental studies on the liquid phase synthesis of methanol were performed in an entrained reactor. In this three-phase process, syngas reacts in the presence of the catalyst-oil slurry, to form the product methanol. The effect of various operating conditions which included reactor temperature, pressure, flow rates of slurry and syngas, slurry holdup tank pressure, syngas composition and catalyst loadings, on the reactor productivity were studied. An overall experimental reaction rate model to predict the productivity of methanol using the operating conditions as the variables was developed, and the results were compared with the experimental data. A computer model was alsomore » developed that predicts the reactivity of all species involved in the methanol synthesis process in an entrained reactor, from inlet conditions. This model incorporates the kinetic rate expression and the gas-liquid mass transfer correlation that was developed for the methanol synthesis process in a liquid entrained reactor. The rate of production of methanol predicted by this computer model agreed well with the experimental results. The overall experimental reaction rate model and the computer model assists in the development, scale-up and commercialization of the liquid phase methanol synthesis process in an entrained reactor.« less
  • This paper describes a two-phase jet model for predicting the liquid rainout (capture) and composition of subcooled and superheated HF/additive pressurized liquid releases. The parent droplets of the release mixture constitute the fist phase. The second phase can in general be a vapor-liquid fog. The drops are not in equilibrium with the fog phase with which they exchange mass and energy. The fog at any location is assumed to be in local equilibrium. Correlations are developed for predicting the initial drop size for hydrodynamic breakup of jets. Applications are discussed in this paper for HF/additive mixtures. The fog phase calculationsmore » account for HF oligomerization and HF-water complex formation in the vapor phase and equilibrium between the liquid and vapor in the fog. The model incorporates jet trajectory calculations and hence can predict the amount of liquid rained out (liquid capture) and the capture distance. The HF captures predicted by the model for various release conditions are in agreement with small and large scale release experiments.« less