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Title: Microseismic monitoring of CO 2-injection-induced seismicity

Abstract

This presentation's Objectives: Studying moment tensors of microseismic sources; Imaging fracture zones and subsurface structure; Obtaining three-dimension seismic velocity model and improved moment tensors.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1398885
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-29031
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earth Sciences

Citation Formats

Chen, Yu, and Huang, Lianjie. Microseismic monitoring of CO2-injection-induced seismicity. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1398885.
Chen, Yu, & Huang, Lianjie. Microseismic monitoring of CO2-injection-induced seismicity. United States. doi:10.2172/1398885.
Chen, Yu, and Huang, Lianjie. 2017. "Microseismic monitoring of CO2-injection-induced seismicity". United States. doi:10.2172/1398885. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398885.
@article{osti_1398885,
title = {Microseismic monitoring of CO2-injection-induced seismicity},
author = {Chen, Yu and Huang, Lianjie},
abstractNote = {This presentation's Objectives: Studying moment tensors of microseismic sources; Imaging fracture zones and subsurface structure; Obtaining three-dimension seismic velocity model and improved moment tensors.},
doi = {10.2172/1398885},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Technical Report:

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  • Induced seismicity is inherently associated with underground fluid injections. If fluids are injected in proximity to a pre-existing fault or fracture system, the resulting elevated pressures can trigger dynamic earthquake slip, which could both damage surface structures and create new migration pathways. The goal of this research is to develop a fundamentally better approach to geological site characterization and early hazard detection. We combine innovative techniques for analyzing microseismic data with a physics-based inversion model to forecast microseismic cloud evolution. The key challenge is that faults at risk of slipping are often too small to detect during the site characterizationmore » phase. Our objective is to devise fast-running methodologies that will allow field operators to respond quickly to changing subsurface conditions.« less
  • It is well established that fluid injection has the potential to induce earthquakes—from microseismicity to large, damaging events—by altering state-of-stress conditions in the subsurface. While induced seismicity has not been a major operational issue for carbon storage projects to date, a seismicity hazard exists and must be carefully addressed. Two essential components of effective seismic risk management are (1) sensitive microseismic monitoring and (2) robust data interpretation tools. This report describes a novel workflow, based on advanced processing algorithms applied to microseismic data, to help improve management of seismic risk. This workflow has three main goals: (1) to improve themore » resolution and reliability of passive seismic monitoring, (2) to extract additional, valuable information from continuous waveform data that is often ignored in standard processing, and (3) to minimize the turn-around time between data collection, interpretation, and decision-making. These three objectives can allow for a better-informed and rapid response to changing subsurface conditions.« less
  • Project to connect wastewater treatment plants with existing wastewater treatment pipelines to the Geysers geothermal reservoirs - monitor regional seismicity.
  • The goal of this research is to develop a fundamentally better approach to geological site characterization and early hazard detection. We combine innovative techniques for analyzing microseismic data with a physics-based inversion model to forecast microseismic cloud evolution. The key challenge is that faults at risk of slipping are often too small to detect during the site characterization phase. Our objective is to devise fast-running methodologies that will allow field operators to respond quickly to changing subsurface conditions.
  • The production of geothermal energy from dry and low permeability reservoirs is achieved by water circulation in natural and/or man-made fractures, and is referred to as enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Often, the permeable zones have to be created by stimulation, a process which involves fracture initiation and/or activation of discontinuities such as faults and joints due to pore pressure and the in-situ stress perturbations. The stimulation of a rock mass is often accompanied by multiple microseismic events. Micro-seismic events associated with rock failure in shear, and shear slip on new or pre-existing fracture planes and possibly their propagations.more » The microseismic signals contain information about the sources of energy that can be used for understanding the hydraulic fracturing process and the created reservoir properties. Detection and interpretation of microseismic events is useful for estimating the stimulated zone, created reservoir permeability and fracture growth, and geometry of the geological structures and the in-situ stress state. The process commonly is referred to as seismicity-based reservoir characterization (SBRC). Although, progress has been made by scientific & geothermal communities for quantitative and qualitative analysis of reservoir stimulation using SBRC several key questions remain unresolved in the analysis of micro-seismicity namely, variation of seismic activity with injection rate, delayed micro-seismicity, and the relation of stimulated zone to the injected volume and its rate, and the resulting reservoir permeability. In addition, the current approach to SBRC does not consider the full range of relevant poroelastic and thermoelastic phenomena and neglects the uncertainty in rock properties and in-situ stress in the data inversion process. The objective of this research and technology developments was to develop a 3D SBRC model that addresses these shortcomings by taking into account hydro-thermo-poro-mechanical mechanisms associated with injection and utilizing a state-of-the-art stochastic inversion procedure. The approach proposed herein is innovative and significantly improves the existing SBCR technology (e.g., Shapiro et al. 2003) for geothermal reservoirs in several ways. First, the current scope of the SBRC is limited with respect to the physical processes considered and the rock properties used. Usually, the geomechanics analyses within SBRC is limited to the pore pressure diffusion in the rock mass, which is modeled using a time-dependent parabolic equation and solved using a finite element algorithm with either a line or a point source. However, water injection induces both poroelastic and thermoelastic stresses in the rock mass which affect the stress state. In fact, it has been suggested that thermoelastic stresses can play a dominant role in reservoir seismicity (Ghassemi et al., 2007). We include these important effects by using a fully-coupled poro-thermoelastic constitutive equations for the rock mass which will be solved using a 3D finite element model with more realistic injection geometries such as multiple injection/extraction sources (and in fractures), uncertainty in the material parameters and the in-situ stress distribution to better reflect the pore pressure and stress distributions. In addition, we developed a 3D stochastic fracture network model to study MEQ generation in fracture rocks. The model was verified using laboratory experiments, and calibrated and applied to Newberry EGS stimulation. In previous SBRC approaches, the triggering of micro-seismicity is modeled base on the assumption that the prior stochastic criticality model of the rock mass is a valid and adequate description. However, this assumption often does not hold in the field. Thus, we improved upon the current SBRC approach by using the micro-seismic responses to estimate the hydraulic diffusivity as well as the criticality distribution itself within the field. In this way, instead of relying on our a priori knowledge of criticality distribution, we combine an initial probabilistic description of criticality with the information contained in microseismic measurements to arrive at criticality solutions that are conditioned on both field data and our prior knowledge. Previous SBRC have relied upon a deterministic inversion approach to estimate the permeability, and the extent of the stimulated zone, whereas a stochastic inversion algorithm that recognizes and quantifies the uncertainties in the prior model, the time evolution of pore pressure distributions (modeling errors), and the observed seismic events is developed and used herein to realistically assess the quality of the solution. Finally, we developed a technique for processing discrete MEQ data to estimate fracture network properties such as dip and dip directions. The approach was successfully applied to the Fenton Hill HRD experiment and the Newberry EGS with results in good agreement with field observations.« less