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Title: Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

Abstract

High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate andmore » OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be seriously injured during violent confrontations. The very low density of the high expansion foam also makes it more suitable for indoor use. This paper summarizes the results of the project.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
13985
Report Number(s):
SAND99-2285C
TRN: AH200135%%571
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Non-Lethal Weapons in Peacekeeping and Anti-Terrorist Operations, Easton, MD (US), 09/12/1999--09/17/1999; Other Information: PBD: 15 Sep 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; BUBBLES; CAPSICUM; DISTURBANCES; FIRE FIGHTING; RESPIRATION; ROADS; SAFEGUARDS; SECURITY; SIMULATION; SOAPS; TESTING; TOXICITY; LESS-THAN-LETHAL; PRISONS; AQUEOUS FOAM; NON-LETHAL; TOXICOLOGY; AQUEOUS FOAM RESPIRATION; CELL EXTRACTION; OLEORESIN CAPSICUM

Citation Formats

GOOLSBY,TOMMY D., and SCOTT,STEVEN H. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams. United States: N. p., 1999. Web.
GOOLSBY,TOMMY D., & SCOTT,STEVEN H. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams. United States.
GOOLSBY,TOMMY D., and SCOTT,STEVEN H. Wed . "Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/13985.
@article{osti_13985,
title = {Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams},
author = {GOOLSBY,TOMMY D. and SCOTT,STEVEN H.},
abstractNote = {High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be seriously injured during violent confrontations. The very low density of the high expansion foam also makes it more suitable for indoor use. This paper summarizes the results of the project.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1999},
month = {9}
}

Conference:
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