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Title: Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters

Abstract

Here, this paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H 0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s -1Mpc -1, a matter density parameter Ω m = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with n s = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of z re= 8.8$$+1.7\atop{-1.4}$$. These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find N eff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value N eff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to Σ m ν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | Ω K | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r 0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r 0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ 2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Finally, apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1398426
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 594; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmology: observations; cosmology: thoery; cosmic background radiation; cosmological parameters

Citation Formats

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Battye, R., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Chluba, J., Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Di Valentino, E., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dolag, K., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dunkley, J., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Farhang, M., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Gauthier, C., Gerbino, M., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Giusarma, E., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hamann, J., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huang, Z., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Knox, L., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marchini, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martinelli, M., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Melin, J. -B., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Millea, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rouillé d’Orfeuil, B., Rowan-Robinson, M., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Said, N., Salvatelli, V., Salvati, L., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Serra, P., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Spinelli, M., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Trombetti, T., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., White, M., White, S. D. M., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525830.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Battye, R., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Chluba, J., Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Di Valentino, E., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dolag, K., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dunkley, J., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Farhang, M., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Gauthier, C., Gerbino, M., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Giusarma, E., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hamann, J., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huang, Z., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Knox, L., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marchini, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martinelli, M., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Melin, J. -B., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Millea, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rouillé d’Orfeuil, B., Rowan-Robinson, M., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Said, N., Salvatelli, V., Salvati, L., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Serra, P., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Spinelli, M., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Trombetti, T., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., White, M., White, S. D. M., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A.. Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525830.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Battye, R., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Chluba, J., Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Di Valentino, E., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dolag, K., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dunkley, J., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Farhang, M., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Gauthier, C., Gerbino, M., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Giusarma, E., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hamann, J., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huang, Z., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Knox, L., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marchini, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martinelli, M., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Melin, J. -B., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Millea, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rouillé d’Orfeuil, B., Rowan-Robinson, M., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Said, N., Salvatelli, V., Salvati, L., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Serra, P., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Spinelli, M., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Trombetti, T., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., White, M., White, S. D. M., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. 2016. "Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525830. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398426.
@article{osti_1398426,
title = {Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartlett, J. G. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Battye, R. and Benabed, K. and Benoît, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bock, J. J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chary, R. -R. and Chiang, H. C. and Chluba, J. and Christensen, P. R. and Church, S. and Clements, D. L. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Combet, C. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Désert, F. -X. and Di Valentino, E. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dolag, K. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dunkley, J. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Farhang, M. and Fergusson, J. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Gauthier, C. and Gerbino, M. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Giusarma, E. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Hamann, J. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. L. and Helou, G. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huang, Z. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Jones, W. C. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Knox, L. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leahy, J. P. and Leonardi, R. and Lesgourgues, J. and Levrier, F. and Lewis, A. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Marchini, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martinelli, M. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and McGehee, P. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Melin, J. -B. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Millea, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C. A. and Paci, F. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, T. J. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G. W. and Prézeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reach, W. T. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rouillé d’Orfeuil, B. and Rowan-Robinson, M. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Said, N. and Salvatelli, V. and Salvati, L. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M. D. and Serra, P. and Shellard, E. P. S. and Spencer, L. D. and Spinelli, M. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Trombetti, T. and Tucci, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Türler, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, F. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Wehus, I. K. and White, M. and White, S. D. M. and Wilkinson, A. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {Here, this paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of zre= 8.8$+1.7\atop{-1.4}$. These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to Σ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Finally, apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201525830},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 594,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

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  • This study presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based on the same hybrid approach used for the previous release, i.e., a pixel-based likelihood at low multipoles (ℓ< 30) and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher multipoles. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization information, along with more detailed models of foregrounds and instrumental uncertainties. The increased redundancy broughtmore » by more than doubling the amount of data analysed enables further consistency checks and enhanced immunity to systematic effects. It also improves the constraining power of Planck, in particular with regard to small-scale foreground properties. Progress in the modelling of foreground emission enables the retention of a larger fraction of the sky to determine the properties of the CMB, which also contributes to the enhanced precision of the spectra. Improvements in data processing and instrumental modelling further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish the robustness and accuracy of the likelihood results, from temperature alone, from polarization alone, and from their combination. For temperature, we also perform a full likelihood analysis of realistic end-to-end simulations of the instrumental response to the sky, which were fed into the actual data processing pipeline; this does not reveal biases from residual low-level instrumental systematics. Even with the increase in precision and robustness, the ΛCDM cosmological model continues to offer a very good fit to the Planck data. The slope of the primordial scalar fluctuations, n s, is confirmed smaller than unity at more than 5σ from Planck alone. We further validate the robustness of the likelihood results against specific extensions to the baseline cosmology, which are particularly sensitive to data at high multipoles. For instance, the effective number of neutrino species remains compatible with the canonical value of 3.046. For this first detailed analysis of Planck polarization spectra, we concentrate at high multipoles on the E modes, leaving the analysis of the weaker B modes to future work. At low multipoles we use temperature maps at all Planck frequencies along with a subset of polarization data. These data take advantage of Planck’s wide frequency coverage to improve the separation of CMB and foreground emission. Within the baseline ΛCDM cosmology this requires τ = 0.078 ± 0.019 for the reionization optical depth, which is significantly lower than estimates without the use of high-frequency data for explicit monitoring of dust emission. At high multipoles we detect residual systematic errors in E polarization, typically at the μK 2 level; we therefore choose to retain temperature information alone for high multipoles as the recommended baseline, in particular for testing non-minimal models. Finally and nevertheless, the high-multipole polarization spectra from Planck are already good enough to enable a separate high-precision determination of the parameters of the ΛCDM model, showing consistency with those established independently from temperature information alone.« less
  • Here, we present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing >103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that themore » estimates of the SZ strength parameter Y5R500are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical, and X-ray data sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under-luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.« less
  • The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a list of discrete objects detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions. Also, it consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two subcatalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these (PCCS2) covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilitiesmore » than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The second (PCCS2E) contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels. Finally, the improved data-processing of the full-mission maps and their reduced noise levels allow us to increase the number of objects in the catalogue, improving its completeness for the target 80% reliability as compared with the previous versions, the PCCS and the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC).« less
  • Here, we present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and which contained 915 high signal-to-noise sources. It is based on the Planck 48-month mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 454, and 353 GHz) have been combinedmore » with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC sources lies between 13 and 14.5 K, depending on the quality of the flux density measurements, with a temperature ranging from 5.8 to 20 K after removing the sources with the top 1% highest temperature estimates. Using seven independent methods, reliable distance estimates have been obtained for 5574 sources, which allows us to derive their physical properties such as their mass, physical size, mean density, and luminosity.The PGCC sources are located mainly in the solar neighbourhood, but also up to a distance of 10.5 kpc in the direction of the Galactic centre, and range from low-mass cores to large molecular clouds. Because of this diversity and because the PGCC catalogue contains sources in very different environments, the catalogue is useful for investigating the evolution from molecular clouds to cores. Finally, it also includes 54 additional sources located in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds.« less