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Title: Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

Abstract

We report that the Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators – separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal – we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone ƒ local NL = 2.5 ± 5.7, ƒ equil NL= -16 ± 70, , and ƒ ortho NL = -34 ± 32 (68% CL, statistical). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain ƒ local NL = 0.8 ± 5.0, ƒ equil NL= -4 ± 43, and ƒ ortho NL = -26 ± 21 (68% CL, statistical). The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with estimators based on measuring the Minkowski functionals of the CMB. The effect of time-domain de-glitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization data as preliminary, owing to a known mismatch of the noise model in simulations and the data. Beyondmore » estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and derive constraints on early universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, axion inflation, initial state modifications, models producing parity-violating tensor bispectra, and directionally dependent vector models. We present a wide survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models, accounting for the “look elsewhere” effect in estimating the statistical significance of features. We also look for isocurvature NG, and find no signal, but we obtain constraints that improve significantly with the inclusion of polarization. The primordial trispectrum amplitude in the local model is constrained to be g local NL = (-0.9 ± 7.7 ) X 10 4(68% CL statistical), and we perform an analysis of trispectrum shapes beyond the local case. The global picture that emerges is one of consistency with the premises of the ΛCDM cosmology, namely that the structure we observe today was sourced by adiabatic, passive, Gaussian, and primordial seed perturbations.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1398411
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 594; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmic background radiation; cosmology: observations; cosmology; theory; early Universe; inflation; methods: data analysis

Citation Formats

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Arroja, F., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Ballardini, M., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Basak, S., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Gauthier, C., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hamann, J., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Heavens, A., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huang, Z., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kim, J., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lacasa, F., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marinucci, D., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Münchmeyer, M., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Peiris, H. V., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Racine, B., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Shiraishi, M., Smith, K., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutter, P., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Troja, A., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A. Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525836.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Arroja, F., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Ballardini, M., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Basak, S., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Gauthier, C., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hamann, J., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Heavens, A., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huang, Z., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kim, J., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lacasa, F., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marinucci, D., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Münchmeyer, M., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Peiris, H. V., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Racine, B., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Shiraishi, M., Smith, K., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutter, P., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Troja, A., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A. Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525836.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Arroja, F., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Ballardini, M., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Basak, S., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Gauthier, C., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hamann, J., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Heavens, A., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huang, Z., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kim, J., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lacasa, F., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marinucci, D., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Münchmeyer, M., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Peiris, H. V., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Racine, B., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Shiraishi, M., Smith, K., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutter, P., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Troja, A., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A. 2016. "Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525836. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398411.
@article{osti_1398411,
title = {Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Arroja, F. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Ballardini, M. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Basak, S. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoît, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bock, J. J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Church, S. and Clements, D. L. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Combet, C. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Désert, F. -X. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Fergusson, J. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Gauthier, C. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Hamann, J. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. L. and Heavens, A. and Helou, G. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huang, Z. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Jones, W. C. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kim, J. and Kisner, T. S. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lacasa, F. and Lagache, G. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leonardi, R. and Lesgourgues, J. and Levrier, F. and Lewis, A. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Marinucci, D. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and McGehee, P. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Münchmeyer, M. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C. A. and Paci, F. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paoletti, D. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Peiris, H. V. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G. W. and Prézeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Racine, B. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M. D. and Shellard, E. P. S. and Shiraishi, M. and Smith, K. and Spencer, L. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutter, P. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Troja, A. and Tucci, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Wehus, I. K. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {We report that the Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators – separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal – we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone ƒlocalNL = 2.5 ± 5.7, ƒequilNL= -16 ± 70, , and ƒorthoNL = -34 ± 32 (68% CL, statistical). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain ƒlocalNL = 0.8 ± 5.0, ƒequilNL= -4 ± 43, and ƒorthoNL = -26 ± 21 (68% CL, statistical). The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with estimators based on measuring the Minkowski functionals of the CMB. The effect of time-domain de-glitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization data as preliminary, owing to a known mismatch of the noise model in simulations and the data. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and derive constraints on early universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, axion inflation, initial state modifications, models producing parity-violating tensor bispectra, and directionally dependent vector models. We present a wide survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models, accounting for the “look elsewhere” effect in estimating the statistical significance of features. We also look for isocurvature NG, and find no signal, but we obtain constraints that improve significantly with the inclusion of polarization. The primordial trispectrum amplitude in the local model is constrained to be glocalNL = (-0.9 ± 7.7 ) X 104(68% CL statistical), and we perform an analysis of trispectrum shapes beyond the local case. The global picture that emerges is one of consistency with the premises of the ΛCDM cosmology, namely that the structure we observe today was sourced by adiabatic, passive, Gaussian, and primordial seed perturbations.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201525836},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 594,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

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  • In this paper, we compute and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB temperature and polarization spectra, which is related to their contribution to cosmological perturbations; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; the impact of PMFs on the ionization history; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities and related non-zero bispectra; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. We present constraints on the amplitude of PMFs that are derived from different Planck data products, depending on the specific effect that ismore » being analysed. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanoGauss, with different bounds that depend on the considered model. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are B 1 Mpc < 4.4 nG (where B 1 Mpc is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity. By considering the Planck likelihood, based only on parity-even angular power spectra, we obtain B 1 Mpc < 5.6 nG for a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain B 1 Mpc < 2.0 nG and B 1 Mpc < 0.9 nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis. From the analysis of magnetically-induced non-Gaussianity, we obtain three different values, corresponding to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magnetically-induced passive-tensor bispectrum is B 1 Mpc < 2.8 nG. Additionally, a search for preferred directions in the magnetically-induced passive bispectrum yields B 1 Mpc < 4.5 nG, whereas the compensated-scalar bispectrum gives B 1 Mpc < 3 nG. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in EE and BB at 70 GHz and gives B 1 Mpc < 1380 nG. In our final analysis, we consider the harmonic-space correlations produced by Alfvén waves, finding no significant evidence for the presence of these waves. Together, these results comprise a comprehensive set of constraints on possible PMFs with Planck data.« less
  • We use the Planck HFI channel maps to make an all sky map of μ-distortion fluctuations. Our μ-type distortion map is dominated by the y-type distortion contamination from the hot gas in the low redshift Universe and we can thus only place upper limits on the μ-type distortion fluctuations. For the amplitude of μ-type distortions on 10' scales we get the limit on root mean square (rms) value μ{sub rms}{sup 10'}< 6.4× 10{sup −6}, a limit 14 times stronger than the COBE-FIRAS (95% confidence) limit on the mean of ( μ )<90× 10{sup −6}. Using our maps we also place strong upper limits on themore » auto angular power spectrum of μ, C{sub ℓ}{sup μμ} and the cross angular power spectrum of μ with the CMB temperature anisotropies, C{sub ℓ}{sup μ T}. The strongest observational limits are on the largest scales, ℓ(ℓ+1)/(2π)C{sub ℓ}{sup μμ}|{sub ℓ=2−26}<(2.3± 1.0)× 10{sup −12} and ℓ(ℓ+1)/(2π)C{sub ℓ}{sup μ T}|{sub ℓ=2−26}<(2.6± 2.6)× 10{sup −12} K. Our observational limits can be used to constrain new physics which can create spatially varying energy release in the early Universe between redshifts 5× 10{sup 4∼<} z∼< 2× 10{sup 6}. We specifically apply our observational results to constrain the primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type, when the source of μ-distortion is Silk damping, for very squeezed configurations with the wavenumber for the short wavelength mode 46 ∼< k{sub S} ∼< 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup −1} and for the long wavelength mode k{sub L}≈ 10{sup −3} Mpc{sup −1}. Our limits on the primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are f{sub NL}<10{sup 5}, τ{sub NL}<1.4× 10{sup 11} for k{sub S}/k{sub L}≈ 5× 10{sup 4}− 10{sup 7}. We also give a new derivation of the evolution of the μ-distortion fluctuations through the y-distortion era and the recombination epoch until today resulting in very simple expressions for the cross and auto power spectra in the squeezed limit. We also introduce mixing of Bose-Einstein spectra due to Silk damping and y{sup BE}-type distortions. The μ-type distortion map and masks are now publicly available.« less
  • In this paper, we present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey, which includes more than twice the integration time of the nominal survey used for the 2013 release papers. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be n s = 0.968 ± 0.006 and tightly constrain its scale dependence to dn s/ dlnk = -0.003 ± 0.007 when combined with themore » Planck lensing likelihood. When the Planck high-ℓ polarization data are included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are further reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r 0.002< 0.11 (95% CL). This upper limit is consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint r< 0.12 (95% CL) obtained from a joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck data. These results imply that V(φ) ∝ φ 2 and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as R 2 inflation. We search for several physically motivated deviations from a simple power-law spectrum of curvature perturbations, including those motivated by a reconstruction of the inflaton potential not relying on the slow-roll approximation. We find that such models are not preferred, either according to a Bayesian model comparison or according to a frequentist simulation-based analysis. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum consistently recover a featureless and smooth P R(k)over the range of scales 0.008 Mpc -1 ≲ k ≲ 0.1 Mpc -1. At large scales, each method finds deviations from a power law, connected to a deficit at multipoles ℓ ≈ 20-40 in the temperature power spectrum, but at an uncompelling statistical significance owing to the large cosmic variance present at these multipoles. By combining power spectrum and non-Gaussianity bounds, we constrain models with generalized Lagrangians, including Galileon models and axion monodromy models. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations, and the estimated values for the parameters of the base Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model are not significantly altered when more general initial conditions are admitted. In correlated mixed adiabatic and isocurvature models, the 95% CL upper bound for the non-adiabatic contribution to the observed CMB temperature variance is | α non - adi | < 1.9%, 4.0%, and 2.9% for CDM, neutrino density, and neutrino velocity isocurvature modes, respectively. We have tested inflationary models producing an anisotropic modulation of the primordial curvature power spectrum finding that the dipolar modulation in the CMB temperature field induced by a CDM isocurvature perturbation is not preferred at a statistically significant level. We also establish tight constraints on a possible quadrupolar modulation of the curvature perturbation. Lastly, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and further constrain slow-roll single-field inflationary models, as expected from the increased precision of Planck data using the full set of observations.« less
  • The extensive search for deviations from Gaussianity in cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) data is very important due to the information about the very early moments of the universe encoded there. Recent analyses from Planck CMB data do not exclude the presence of non-Gaussianity of small amplitude, although they are consistent with the Gaussian hypothesis. The use of different techniques is essential to provide information about types and amplitudes of non-Gaussianities in the CMB data. In particular, we find interesting to construct an estimator based upon the combination of two powerful statistical tools that appears to be sensitive enough tomore » detect tiny deviations from Gaussianity in CMB maps. This estimator combines the Minkowski functionals with a Neural Network, maximizing a tool widely used to study non-Gaussian signals with a reinforcement of another tool designed to identify patterns in a data set. We test our estimator by analyzing simulated CMB maps contaminated with different amounts of local primordial non-Gaussianity quantified by the dimensionless parameter f{sub  NL}. We apply it to these sets of CMB maps and find ∼> 98% of chance of positive detection, even for small intensity local non-Gaussianity like f{sub  NL} = 38±18, the current limit from Planck data for large angular scales. Additionally, we test the suitability to distinguish between primary and secondary non-Gaussianities: first we train the Neural Network with two sets, one of nearly Gaussian CMB maps (|f{sub  NL}| ≤ 10) but contaminated with realistic inhomogeneous Planck noise (i.e., secondary non-Gaussianity) and the other of non-Gaussian CMB maps, that is, maps endowed with weak primordial non-Gaussianity (28 ≤ f{sub  NL} ≤ 48); after that we test an ensemble composed of CMB maps either with one of these non-Gaussian contaminations, and find out that our method successfully classifies ∼ 95% of the tested maps as being CMB maps containing primordial or secondary non-Gaussianity. Furthermore, we analyze the foreground-cleaned Planck maps obtaining constraints for non-Gaussianity at large-angles that are in good agreement with recent constraints. Finally, we also test the robustness of our estimator including cut-sky masks and realistic noise maps measured by Planck, obtaining successful results as well.« less
  • We present an upgraded combined estimator, based on Minkowski Functionals and Neural Networks, with excellent performance in detecting primordial non-Gaussianity in simulated maps that also contain a weighted mixture of Galactic contaminations, besides real pixel's noise from Planck cosmic microwave background radiation data. We rigorously test the efficiency of our estimator considering several plausible scenarios for residual non-Gaussianities in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps, with the intuition to optimize the training procedure of the Neural Network to discriminate between contaminations with primordial and secondary non-Gaussian signatures. We look for constraints of primordial local non-Gaussianity at large angular scales in the foreground-cleanedmore » Planck maps. For the SMICA map we found f{sub NL} = 33 ± 23, at 1σ confidence level, in excellent agreement with the WMAP-9yr and Planck results. In addition, for the other three Planck maps we obtain similar constraints with values in the interval f{sub NL}  element of  [33, 41], concomitant with the fact that these maps manifest distinct features in reported analyses, like having different pixel's noise intensities.« less