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Title: Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

Abstract

In this paper, we present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. For the first time, we present LFI maps in Stokes Q and U polarization. Finally, we refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions of the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
Planck Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1398407
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 594; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; space vehicles: instruments; methods: data analysis; cosmic background radiation

Citation Formats

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Ballardini, M., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Basak, S., Battaglia, P., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Castex, G., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschet, C., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kiiveri, K., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Krachmalnicoff, N., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., Lindholm, V., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Morisset, N., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Peel, M., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renzi, A., Rocha, G., Romelli, E., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Tavagnacco, D., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vassallo, T., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525818.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Ballardini, M., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Basak, S., Battaglia, P., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Castex, G., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschet, C., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kiiveri, K., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Krachmalnicoff, N., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., Lindholm, V., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Morisset, N., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Peel, M., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renzi, A., Rocha, G., Romelli, E., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Tavagnacco, D., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vassallo, T., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A.. Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525818.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Ballardini, M., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Basak, S., Battaglia, P., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Castex, G., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschet, C., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kiiveri, K., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Krachmalnicoff, N., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., Lindholm, V., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Morisset, N., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Peel, M., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renzi, A., Rocha, G., Romelli, E., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Tavagnacco, D., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vassallo, T., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. Tue . "Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525818. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398407.
@article{osti_1398407,
title = {Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Ballardini, M. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Basak, S. and Battaglia, P. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoît, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bock, J. J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Castex, G. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Christensen, P. R. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Fergusson, J. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Franceschet, C. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. L. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kiiveri, K. and Kisner, T. S. and Knoche, J. and Krachmalnicoff, N. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leahy, J. P. and Leonardi, R. and Lesgourgues, J. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and Lindholm, V. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and McGehee, P. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Morisset, N. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oppermann, N. and Paci, F. and Pagano, L. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, T. J. and Peel, M. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Pratt, G. W. and Prézeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renzi, A. and Rocha, G. and Romelli, E. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M. D. and Shellard, E. P. S. and Spencer, L. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Tavagnacco, D. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Türler, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vassallo, T. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Watson, R. and Wehus, I. K. and Wilkinson, A. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. For the first time, we present LFI maps in Stokes Q and U polarization. Finally, we refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions of the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201525818},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 594,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Tue Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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  • This article presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions, and the associated uncertainties for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). The structure of the paper is similar to that presented in the 2013 Planck release; the main differences concern the beam normalization and the delivery of the window functions to be used for polarization analysis. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relies on measurements performed during observations of Jupiter. By stacking data from seven Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -25 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down tomore » -30 dB at 70 GHz. It has been confirmed that the agreement between the simulated beams and the measured beams is better than 1% at each LFI frequency band (within the 20 dB contour from the peak, the rms values are 0.1% at 30 and 70 GHz; 0.2% at 44 GHz). Simulated polarized beams are used for the computation of the effective beam window functions. The error budget for the window functions is estimated from both main beam and sidelobe contributions, and accounts for the radiometer band shapes. The total uncertainties in the effective beam window functions are 0.7% and 1% at 30 and 44 GHz, respectively (at ℓ ≈ 600); and 0.5% at 70 GHz (at ℓ ≈ 1000).« less
  • The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the detector and pointing samples must be processed and the angular response must be assessed. The full mission TOI is included in the Planck 2015 release. This study describes the HFI TOI and beam processing for the 2015 release. HFI calibration and map making are described in a companion paper. The mainmore » pipeline has been modified since the last release (2013 nominal mission in intensity only), by including a correction for the nonlinearity of the warm readout and by improving the model of the bolometer time response. The beam processing is an essential tool that derives the angular response used in all the Planck science papers and we report an improvement in the effective beam window function uncertainty of more than a factor of 10 relative to the2013 release. Noise correlations introduced by pipeline filtering function are assessed using dedicated simulations. Finally, angular cross-power spectra using data sets that are decorrelated in time are immune to the main systematic effects.« less
  • In this paper, we discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100 GHz based on observations by Planck and WMAP. The total intensity in this part of the spectrum is dominated by free-free and spinning dust emission, whereas the polarized intensity is dominated by synchrotron emission. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with radio recombination line templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Hα emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent withmore » a fraction (≈30%) of Hα having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak (in I ν) ranging from below 20 GHz to more than 50 GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent H ii regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photo-dissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regions is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the Commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission (AME) than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and free-free emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys, particularly at 5–20 GHz, will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck and WMAP data to make the highest signal-to-noise ratio maps yet of the intensity of the all-sky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the high-latitude polarized emission is associated with distinct large-scale loops and spurs, and we re-discuss their structure. We argue that nearly all the emission at 40deg > l > -90deg is part of the Loop I structure, and show that the emission extends much further in to the southern Galactic hemisphere than previously recognised, giving Loop I an ovoid rather than circular outline. However, it does not continue as far as the “Fermi bubble/microwave haze”, making it less probable that these are part of the same structure. We identify a number of new faint features in the polarized sky, including a dearth of polarized synchrotron emission directly correlated with a narrow, roughly 20deg long filament seen in Hα at high Galactic latitude. In conclusion, we look for evidence of polarized AME, however many AME regions are significantly contaminated by polarized synchrotron emission, and we find a 2σ upper limit of 1.6% in the Perseus region.« less
  • Here, we present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing >103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that themore » estimates of the SZ strength parameter Y5R500are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical, and X-ray data sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under-luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.« less
  • The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a list of discrete objects detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions. Also, it consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two subcatalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these (PCCS2) covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilitiesmore » than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The second (PCCS2E) contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels. Finally, the improved data-processing of the full-mission maps and their reduced noise levels allow us to increase the number of objects in the catalogue, improving its completeness for the target 80% reliability as compared with the previous versions, the PCCS and the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC).« less