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Title: Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

Abstract

Here, soil organic matter supports the Earth’s ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retain the largest pool of actively cycling carbon (C). Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance land productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well-established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil organic matter and C andmore » their management for sustained production and climate regulation.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [14];  [15];  [10];  [16];  [17];  [12];  [15] more »;  [18];  [19] « less
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund (Sweden)
  4. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  5. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  6. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)
  7. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
  8. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  9. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  10. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  11. USDA-ARS Forage Seed and Cereal Research Unit, Corvallis, OR (United States)
  12. Univ. of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)
  13. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  14. Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)
  15. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  16. Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)
  17. USDA Forest Service, Houghton, MI (United States)
  18. Union of Concerned Scientists, Washington, D.C. (United States)
  19. Univ. of Michigan, Pellston, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1398128
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 00; Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; agricultural practices; C cycling; C sequestration; global CO2; network; soil; soil carbon; soil management

Citation Formats

Harden, Jennifer W., Hugelius, Gustaf, Ahlstrom, Anders, Blankinship, Joseph C., Bond-Lamberty, Ben, Lawrence, Corey R., Loisel, Julie, Malhotra, Avni, Jackson, Robert B., Ogle, Stephen, Phillips, Claire, Ryals, Rebecca, Todd-Brown, Katherine, Vargas, Rodrigo, Vergara, Sintana E., Cotrufo, M. Francesca, Keiluweit, Marco, Heckman, Katherine A., Crow, Susan E., Silver, Whendee L., DeLonge, Marcia, and Nave, Lucas E. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/gcb.13896.
Harden, Jennifer W., Hugelius, Gustaf, Ahlstrom, Anders, Blankinship, Joseph C., Bond-Lamberty, Ben, Lawrence, Corey R., Loisel, Julie, Malhotra, Avni, Jackson, Robert B., Ogle, Stephen, Phillips, Claire, Ryals, Rebecca, Todd-Brown, Katherine, Vargas, Rodrigo, Vergara, Sintana E., Cotrufo, M. Francesca, Keiluweit, Marco, Heckman, Katherine A., Crow, Susan E., Silver, Whendee L., DeLonge, Marcia, & Nave, Lucas E. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter. United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.13896.
Harden, Jennifer W., Hugelius, Gustaf, Ahlstrom, Anders, Blankinship, Joseph C., Bond-Lamberty, Ben, Lawrence, Corey R., Loisel, Julie, Malhotra, Avni, Jackson, Robert B., Ogle, Stephen, Phillips, Claire, Ryals, Rebecca, Todd-Brown, Katherine, Vargas, Rodrigo, Vergara, Sintana E., Cotrufo, M. Francesca, Keiluweit, Marco, Heckman, Katherine A., Crow, Susan E., Silver, Whendee L., DeLonge, Marcia, and Nave, Lucas E. 2017. "Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter". United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.13896.
@article{osti_1398128,
title = {Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter},
author = {Harden, Jennifer W. and Hugelius, Gustaf and Ahlstrom, Anders and Blankinship, Joseph C. and Bond-Lamberty, Ben and Lawrence, Corey R. and Loisel, Julie and Malhotra, Avni and Jackson, Robert B. and Ogle, Stephen and Phillips, Claire and Ryals, Rebecca and Todd-Brown, Katherine and Vargas, Rodrigo and Vergara, Sintana E. and Cotrufo, M. Francesca and Keiluweit, Marco and Heckman, Katherine A. and Crow, Susan E. and Silver, Whendee L. and DeLonge, Marcia and Nave, Lucas E.},
abstractNote = {Here, soil organic matter supports the Earth’s ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retain the largest pool of actively cycling carbon (C). Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance land productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well-established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil organic matter and C and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.},
doi = {10.1111/gcb.13896},
journal = {Global Change Biology},
number = ,
volume = 00,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1111/gcb.13896

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  • Here, soil organic matter supports the Earth’s ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retain the largest pool of actively cycling carbon (C). Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance land productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerablemore » to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well-established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil organic matter and C and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.« less
  • Soil organic matter supports the Earth’s ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retain the largest pool of actively cycling carbon (C). Over 75% ofthe soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance land productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to lossesmore » by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well-established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil organic matter and C and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.« less
  • Chemical oxidations are routinely employed in soil science to study soil organic matter (SOM), and their interpretation could be improved by characterizing oxidation effects on SOM composition with spectroscopy. We investigated the effects of routinely employed oxidants on SOM composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent representative of intensively managed agricultural soils in the California Central Valley. Soil samples were subjected to oxidation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Additionally, non-oxidized and oxidized soils were treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to evaluate reduction of the mineral component to improve spectroscopy of oxidation effects. Oxidized non-HF and HF-treatedmore » soils were characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), and for particle size distribution (PSD) using laser diffractometry (LD). Across the range of soil organic carbon (OC) removed by oxidations (14-72%), aliphatic C-H stretch at 3000-2800 cm-1 (DRIFTS) decreased with OC removal, and this trend was enhanced by HF treatment due to significant demineralization in this soil (70%). Analysis by NMR spectroscopy was feasible only after HF treatment, and did not reveal trends between OC removal and C functional groups. Pyrolysis-MBMS did not detect differences among oxidations, even after HF treatment of soils. Hydrofluoric acid entailed OC loss (13-39%), and for H2O2 oxidized soils increased C:N and substantially decreased mean particle size. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HF to improve characterizations of SOM composition following oxidations as practiced in soil science, in particular for DRIFTS. Since OC removal by oxidants, mineral removal by HF, and the interaction of oxidants and HF observed for this soil may differ for soils with different mineralogies, future work should examine additional soil and land use types to optimize characterizations of oxidation effects on SOM composition.« less