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Title: Corrosion testing of metals in contact with calcium chloride hexahydrate used for thermal energy storage

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3]
  1. Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, No. 2 Sipailou Nanjing 210096 P. R. China
  2. Energy Research Center, Lehigh University, 117 ATLSS Drive Bethlehem Pennsylvania 18015 USA
  3. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., 1046 New Holland Avenue Lancaster Pennsylvania 17601-5688 USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1398066
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Materials and Corrosion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 68; Journal Issue: 10; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-05 07:44:24; Journal ID: ISSN 0947-5117
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
Germany
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Ren, S. J., Charles, J., Wang, X. C., Nie, F. X., Romero, C., Neti, S., Zheng, Y., Hoenig, S., Chen, C., Cao, F., Bonner, R., and Pearlman, H.. Corrosion testing of metals in contact with calcium chloride hexahydrate used for thermal energy storage. Germany: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/maco.201709432.
Ren, S. J., Charles, J., Wang, X. C., Nie, F. X., Romero, C., Neti, S., Zheng, Y., Hoenig, S., Chen, C., Cao, F., Bonner, R., & Pearlman, H.. Corrosion testing of metals in contact with calcium chloride hexahydrate used for thermal energy storage. Germany. doi:10.1002/maco.201709432.
Ren, S. J., Charles, J., Wang, X. C., Nie, F. X., Romero, C., Neti, S., Zheng, Y., Hoenig, S., Chen, C., Cao, F., Bonner, R., and Pearlman, H.. 2017. "Corrosion testing of metals in contact with calcium chloride hexahydrate used for thermal energy storage". Germany. doi:10.1002/maco.201709432.
@article{osti_1398066,
title = {Corrosion testing of metals in contact with calcium chloride hexahydrate used for thermal energy storage},
author = {Ren, S. J. and Charles, J. and Wang, X. C. and Nie, F. X. and Romero, C. and Neti, S. and Zheng, Y. and Hoenig, S. and Chen, C. and Cao, F. and Bonner, R. and Pearlman, H.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/maco.201709432},
journal = {Materials and Corrosion},
number = 10,
volume = 68,
place = {Germany},
year = 2017,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on July 7, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • The thermal performance of an air-heated/cooled, phase-change, heat stoage module was tested and evaluated. The module (rated at 38.7 kWh) consist of 130 vertically oriented tubes filled with 729 kg (1607 lb) of calcium chloride hexahydrate and enclosed in a rectangular box. Heat transfer rates measured during charging and discharging decreased with time as a result of decreasing effective heat transfer area and increasing thermal resistance of the phase-change material. These two dominant effects are included in a proposed mathematical model that predicted the experimental data.
  • In this paper corrosion studies are described in a molten calcium chloride environment sparged with chlorine gas at 850{degrees}C, both in the melt and in the gas phase above the salt, in support of efforts at Westinghouse Savannah River Company to develop more resistant materials of construction for molten salt processing of plutonium. Corrosion rates and electron microscope analyses are reported for Inconel alloys 601 and 617, tantalum, tungsten, magnesium oxide, and silicon nitride. Silicon nitride exhibited the greatest resistance, showing {lt}0.1 mg/cm{sup 2} {center dot} h loss in both melt and vapor None of the metallic coupons withstood themore » chlorine vapor environment, although Inconel indicated resistance immersed in the melt if protected from chlorine gas.« less
  • Corrosion evaluations of Incoloy 800 H (In800H) and stainless steel AISI 310 (310SS), in bare and coated conditions, were performed in 34.42 wt% NaCl – 55.47 wt% KCl at 700 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. This NaCl–KCl composition has a melting point of 657 °C, which makes it suitable for latent-heat thermal energy storage in concentrating solar power applications. Several nickel-based MCrAlX coatings were tested, where M = Ni and/or Co and X = Y, Ta, Hf, and/or Si. Electrochemical testing was carried out to determine corrosion rates. The bare In800H and 310SS alloys corroded rapidly (~2500 and 4500 µm/yr,more » respectively, assuming uniform corrosion). Concentrating solar power plants need containment materials with a lifetime of at least 30 years; thus, these corrosion rates are excessive. Corrosion mitigation approaches are being investigated to obtain degradation on the order of 20 µm/yr or lower. The lowest corrosion rate of 190 µm/yr was obtained for atmospheric plasma spray NiCoCrAlY coatings pre-oxidized in air at 900 °C for 24 h with a heating/cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min. Metallographic characterization of the corroded surfaces showed that the formation of a uniform thin alumina scale before exposure to the molten chloride system considerably reduced the corrosion of the alloy. However, the rates of corrosion determined herein are considerable, highlighting the relevance of testing materials durability in solar power applications.« less
  • The utility of calcium chloride-hexahydrate as a heat storage material is improved when barium carbonate, strontium carbonate, barium fluoride, barium fluoride-hydrofluoride and/or strontium fluoride is used as a nucleating agent to prevent supercooling.