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Title: Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) — Principles, geometry and design process

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1397898
Grant/Contract Number:
NE0008455
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Engineering and Design
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 307; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-04 22:33:57; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5493
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
Netherlands
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Qvist, Staffan A., Hellesen, Carl, Thiele, Roman, Dubberley, Allen E., Gradecka, Malwina, and Greenspan, Ehud. Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) — Principles, geometry and design process. Netherlands: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2016.07.018.
Qvist, Staffan A., Hellesen, Carl, Thiele, Roman, Dubberley, Allen E., Gradecka, Malwina, & Greenspan, Ehud. Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) — Principles, geometry and design process. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2016.07.018.
Qvist, Staffan A., Hellesen, Carl, Thiele, Roman, Dubberley, Allen E., Gradecka, Malwina, and Greenspan, Ehud. 2016. "Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) — Principles, geometry and design process". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2016.07.018.
@article{osti_1397898,
title = {Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) — Principles, geometry and design process},
author = {Qvist, Staffan A. and Hellesen, Carl and Thiele, Roman and Dubberley, Allen E. and Gradecka, Malwina and Greenspan, Ehud},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.nucengdes.2016.07.018},
journal = {Nuclear Engineering and Design},
number = C,
volume = 307,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2016,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2016.07.018

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  • The Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) system was developed to ensure inherent safety of Generation IV reactors while having a minimal impact on reactor performance and economic viability. In this study we present the transient response of fast reactor cores to postulated accident scenarios with and without ARC systems installed. Using a combination of analytical methods and numerical simulation, the principles of ARC system design that assure stability and avoids oscillatory behavior have been identified. A comprehensive transient analysis study for ARC-equipped cores, including a series of Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) and Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink (ULOHS) simulations, weremore » performed for Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) designs. With carefully designed ARC-systems installed in the fuel assemblies, the cores exhibit a smooth non-oscillatory transition to stabilization at acceptable temperatures following all postulated transients. To avoid oscillations in power and temperature, the reactivity introduced per degree of temperature change in the ARC system needs to be kept below a certain threshold the value of which is system dependent, the temperature span of actuation needs to be as large as possible.« less
  • Reliable reactor control is important to reactor safety, both in terrestrial and space systems. For a space system, where the time for communication to Earth is significant, autonomous control is imperative. Based on feedback from reactor diagnostics, a controller must be able to automatically adjust to changes in reactor temperature and power level to maintain nominal operation without user intervention. Model-based predictive control (MBPC) (Clarke 1994; Morari 1994) is investigated as a potential control methodology for reactor start-up and transient operation in the presence of an external source. Bragg-Sitton and Holloway (2004) assessed the applicability of MBPC to reactor start-upmore » from a cold, zero-power condition in the presence of a time-varying external radiation source, where large fluctuations in the external radiation source can significantly impact a reactor during start-up operations. The MBPC algorithm applied the point kinetics model to describe the reactor dynamics, using a single group of delayed neutrons; initial application considered a fast neutron lifetime (10-3 sec) to simplify calculations during initial controller analysis. The present study will more accurately specify the dynamics of a fast reactor, using a more appropriate fast neutron lifetime (10-7 sec) than in the previous work. Controller stability will also be assessed by carefully considering the dependencies of each component in the defined cost (objective) function and its subsequent effect on the selected 'optimal' control maneuvers.« less