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Title: Three-dimensional modeling of grain structure evolution during welding of an aluminum alloy

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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Acta Materialia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 126; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-04 22:23:19; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Wei, H. L., Elmer, J. W., and DebRoy, T.. Three-dimensional modeling of grain structure evolution during welding of an aluminum alloy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.12.073.
Wei, H. L., Elmer, J. W., & DebRoy, T.. Three-dimensional modeling of grain structure evolution during welding of an aluminum alloy. United States. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.12.073.
Wei, H. L., Elmer, J. W., and DebRoy, T.. Wed . "Three-dimensional modeling of grain structure evolution during welding of an aluminum alloy". United States. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.12.073.
title = {Three-dimensional modeling of grain structure evolution during welding of an aluminum alloy},
author = {Wei, H. L. and Elmer, J. W. and DebRoy, T.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.actamat.2016.12.073},
journal = {Acta Materialia},
number = C,
volume = 126,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.actamat.2016.12.073

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Cited by: 8works
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  • High power ultrasonic spot welding (HPUSW) is a joining technique which is performed within less than a second and provides a more energy-efficient alternative to friction stir spot welding (FSSW), which is considered a longer cycle manufacturing process for joining automotive alloys. To date, only a few reports exist on the deformation mechanisms that take place during high power ultrasonic spot welding. In this work, dynamic recrystallization and grain growth were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). HPUSW causes extensive deformation within the weld zone where the temperature increases to 440 °C. An ultra-fine grain structure was observed in amore » thin band of flat weld interface within a short welding time of 0.10 s. With increasing welding time the interface was displaced and ‘folds’ or ‘crests’ appeared together with shear bands. The weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal and eventually to a convoluted wave-like pattern when the tool fully penetrated the workpiece, having a wavelength of ~ 1 mm after 0.40 s. Finally, the microstructure and texture varied significantly depending on the location within the weld. Although the texture near the weld interface was relatively weak, a shift was observed with increasing welding time from an initially Cube-dominated texture to one where the typical β-fibre Brass component prevailed. - Highlights: •Lap shear strength of ~2.9 kN was achieved in 0.30 sec welding time. •Temperature approached 440 °C along the weld centreline for the highest welding time. •The texture near the teeth was dominated by Brass, P and S components at optimum condition. •The weld interface showed typical β-fibre deformation texture at optimum condition.« less
  • The stability of the grain structure in 2219-O aluminum alloy friction stir welds during solution treatment has been investigated. Experimental results show that the solution treatment causes drastic grain growth, Grain growth initiates at the surface and the bottom of the weld and then extends to the weld centre within several minutes. The solution treatment temperature and the welding heat input have a significant effect on grain growth. The higher the solution temperature, or the higher the welding heat input, the greater the grain growth. The instability of the grains is attributed to an imbalance between thermodynamic driving forces formore » grain growth and the pinning forces impeding grain boundary migration during solution treatment.« less
  • Grain structure and microstructure evolution during superplastic forming were studied on an unrecrystallized sheet of a modified 7050 superplastic alloy. A SEM-based local orientation technique was used to cover a large number of (sub)grain boundaries in combination with other metallographic techniques. The gradual boundary misorientation and microtexture evolution during superplastic forming (SPF) confirmed that a continuous evolutionary process was occurring. There was no evidence of dynamic recrystallization at the stress maximum. The fraction of high angle boundaries increased rapidly once the mean misorientation reached a critical value. These and other results suggest that both grain boundary sliding (GBS) and dislocationmore » slip were operative initially until the stress maximum was approached, beyond which GBS was predominant. The results of quantitative orientation distribution function (ODF) analyses suggest that grain rotation, which resulted in texture randomization, became important from slightly beyond the stress maximum through most of the stress-strain curve.« less
  • The evolution of microstructure under static annealing was studied for mid-thickness section of a twin-roll-cast (TRC) magnesium alloy. Annealing was performed at 300 °C and 500 °C for different times. Microstructural evolution was quantitatively analyzed, from optical micrographs, using grain path envelope analysis. Additional information from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used for addressing the possible mechanism(s). It was found that the TRC structure had a bimodal grain size, which was preserved even after annealing at 300 °C. However, the annealing at 500 °C led to a unimodal grain size. This difference in the grain size distribution created a contrastingmore » behavior in the normalized standard deviations. This was primarily attributed to a competition between recovery and recrystallization, and their respective dominance at 300° and 500 °C. A deformation induced recrystallization recovery (DIRR) model was proposed. The proposed model could successfully address the experimental microstructural evolution. - Highlights: • Annealing of twin roll cast (TRC) magnesium alloy was done at temperatures of 300 °C and 500 °C. • TRC had bimodal structure. Bimodality preserved for annealing at 300 °C. Annealing at 500 °C led to unimodal structure. • Grain evolution was described based on the competition between recovery and recrystallization. • Deformation induced recrystallization recovery (DIRR) mechanistic model was developed.« less