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Title: Numerical simulation and optimization of an industrial fluid catalytic cracking regenerator

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1397769
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Thermal Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-04 22:09:04; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-4311
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Tang, Guangwu, Silaen, Armin K., Wu, Bin, Fu, Dong, Agnello-Dean, Dwight, Wilson, Joseph, Meng, Qingjun, Khanna, Samir, and Zhou, Chenn Q. Numerical simulation and optimization of an industrial fluid catalytic cracking regenerator. United Kingdom: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.060.
Tang, Guangwu, Silaen, Armin K., Wu, Bin, Fu, Dong, Agnello-Dean, Dwight, Wilson, Joseph, Meng, Qingjun, Khanna, Samir, & Zhou, Chenn Q. Numerical simulation and optimization of an industrial fluid catalytic cracking regenerator. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.060.
Tang, Guangwu, Silaen, Armin K., Wu, Bin, Fu, Dong, Agnello-Dean, Dwight, Wilson, Joseph, Meng, Qingjun, Khanna, Samir, and Zhou, Chenn Q. Wed . "Numerical simulation and optimization of an industrial fluid catalytic cracking regenerator". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.060.
@article{osti_1397769,
title = {Numerical simulation and optimization of an industrial fluid catalytic cracking regenerator},
author = {Tang, Guangwu and Silaen, Armin K. and Wu, Bin and Fu, Dong and Agnello-Dean, Dwight and Wilson, Joseph and Meng, Qingjun and Khanna, Samir and Zhou, Chenn Q.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.060},
journal = {Applied Thermal Engineering},
number = C,
volume = 112,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.060

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
Citation information provided by
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  • Fluid catalytic cracking is a complex process involving reactor and regenerator operations that are intimately coupled by interdependent variables. Using reasonable simplifying assumptions, we developed a steady state model of the regenerator capable of predicting temperature and gas composition profiles taking into account carbon burning and CO oxidation reactions and catalyst particle entrainment effects. Coupled with a reactor model, the regenerator model is currently being used to monitor, evaluate and optimize the performance of each of Gulf's commercial FCC units.
  • FCC processes involve complex interactive dynamics which are difficult to operate and control as well as poorly known reaction kinetics. This work concerns the synthesis of temperature controllers for FCC units. The problem is addressed first for the case where perfect knowledge of the reaction kinetics is assumed, leading to an input-output linearizing state feedback. However, in most industrial FCC units, perfect knowledge of reaction kinetics and composition measurements is not available. To address the problem of robustness against uncertainties in the reaction kinetics, an adaptive model-based nonlinear controller with simplified reaction models is presented. The adaptive strategy makes usemore » of estimates of uncertainties derived from calorimetric (energy) balances. The resulting controller is similar in form to standard input-output linearizing controllers and can be tuned analogously. Alternatively, the controller can be tuned using a single gain parameter and is computationally efficient. The performance of the closed-loop system and the controller design procedure are shown with simulations.« less
  • Emission of NO{sub x} from the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) regenerator is increasingly controlled by various state and local regulations. The FCC regenerator poses a very challenging environment for controlling NO{sub x}. Other than NO, the high-temperature flue gas contains O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, and possibly other nitrogen or sulfur species. In this paper, the authors first present a complete nitrogen balance around the fluid catalytic cracking unit by using a circulating pilot plant with continuous regeneration. They also discuss the transformation of nitrogen species during the cracking and catalyst regeneration process, whichmore » has direct implications on the formation and reduction of NO{sub x} in the regenerator. Pilot plant or commercial data on the effect of operating conditions, cracking feedstocks, and CO combustion promoter usage on NO{sub x} emission are discussed. With both thermodynamic analysis as well as experiments, the authors show that the so-called thermal NO{sub x} does not contribute to the FCC regenerator NO{sub x} emission. On the basis of the understanding of the nitrogen chemistry they have obtained, they have successfully developed different catalytic NO{sub x} control technologies for the FCC regenerator. Direct NO{sub x} reduction additives and a new generation of CO combustion promoters which significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions are discussed. Both laboratory and commercial trial data on some of the NO{sub x} control additives as well as the mechanism for the NO{sub x} control additives also are presented. Finally, the future directions for NO{sub x} control are discussed.« less
  • Because the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is a complex and difficult process to operate, a small improvement in the process can result in significant gain. In 1989, 40% of gasoline blend stocks in the US were produced from the FCCU. In addition to the large throughput, the FCCU is one of the most complex process units with large catalytic reactions, catalyst regeneration, fractionation and separation equipment. Options to improve FCCU performance include catalyst selection, operating condition adjustment, feedstock pretreatment, reactor and regenerator revamping, etc. One of the most economic alternatives is using a computer to control and optimize themore » unit operation. Although the discussions are for the FCC process, the philosophic approaches and benefits can generally be applied to any plant or process unit. The paper describes: the complex operation; feedstock and catalyst properties; FCCU constrains and controls; existing FCCU control and optimization systems; why some systems fail; nonlinear technology; FCC data monitoring; FCC advanced control; FCCU on-line optimization; and potential benefits.« less
  • This paper addresses the problem of stabilizing the operation of an industrial type IV fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) around an unstable high gasoline yield operating steady state. The model used in the work has been previously checked successfully against a number of industrial units. The stabilization is achieved through simulated implementation of a model predictive control (MPC) version that utilizes the nonlinear model in the output prediction. A state estimation technique is also incorporated in the MPC algorithm to improve the latter performance in the presence of unmeasured disturbances and/or parametric modeling errors. Two types of closed-loop simulations weremore » tested, namely, servo and regulator problems. The results of the simulation illustrated that operating the FCCU at the unstable region is possible due to the effectiveness of MPC in handling such a problem. It is also found that, for an open-loop unstable process, state estimation must be used to improve the feedback response of MPC in the presence of unmeasured disturbances or modeling errors. Traditional PI control was also examined for the FCCU stabilization control problem, and its performance is compared with that of the NLMPC. The investigation revealed that reasonable PI performance can also be obtained through careful tuning of its settings and that NLMPC is considered easier to apply in that case.« less