skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Sputter rate measurements of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 absorber layers with varied Ga ratios, primary voltage, and angle of incidence by secondary ion mass spectrometry

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1397611
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 696; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-04 21:33:31; Journal ID: ISSN 0925-8388
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
Netherlands
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Claypoole, Jesse, Novak, Steve, Altwerger, Mark, Dwyer, Dan, Haldar, Pradeep, Eisaman, Matt, and Efstathiadis, Harry. Sputter rate measurements of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 absorber layers with varied Ga ratios, primary voltage, and angle of incidence by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Netherlands: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.12.007.
Claypoole, Jesse, Novak, Steve, Altwerger, Mark, Dwyer, Dan, Haldar, Pradeep, Eisaman, Matt, & Efstathiadis, Harry. Sputter rate measurements of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 absorber layers with varied Ga ratios, primary voltage, and angle of incidence by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.12.007.
Claypoole, Jesse, Novak, Steve, Altwerger, Mark, Dwyer, Dan, Haldar, Pradeep, Eisaman, Matt, and Efstathiadis, Harry. Wed . "Sputter rate measurements of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 absorber layers with varied Ga ratios, primary voltage, and angle of incidence by secondary ion mass spectrometry". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.12.007.
@article{osti_1397611,
title = {Sputter rate measurements of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 absorber layers with varied Ga ratios, primary voltage, and angle of incidence by secondary ion mass spectrometry},
author = {Claypoole, Jesse and Novak, Steve and Altwerger, Mark and Dwyer, Dan and Haldar, Pradeep and Eisaman, Matt and Efstathiadis, Harry},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.12.007},
journal = {Journal of Alloys and Compounds},
number = C,
volume = 696,
place = {Netherlands},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.12.007

Save / Share:
  • Development of highly efficient thin film solar cells involves band gap engineering by tuning their elemental composition with depth. Here we show that grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and well-characterized instrumentation is suitable for a non-destructive and reference-free analysis of compositional depth profiles in thin films. Variation of the incidence angle provides quantitative access to the in-depth distribution of the elements, which are retrieved from measured fluorescence intensities by modeling parameterized gradients and fitting calculated to measured fluorescence intensities. Our results show that double Ga gradients in Cu(In{sub 1−x},Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} can be resolved bymore » GIXRF.« less
  • An important development in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic solar cells is the attainment of a high voltage device simultaneous with state-of-the-art conversion efficiency. This letter describes a CIGS-based solar cell that demonstrates an open-circuit voltage ([ital V][sub oc]) approaching 700 mV and a total-area conversion efficiency of 12.2%. The high value of [ital V][sub oc] was achieved by grading In/Ga through the absorber by a computer-controlled physical vapor deposition (PVD) process that utilizes variable metal fluxes.
  • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V{sub OC} before solar cell fabrication.
  • Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2}- (''CIGSSe'') based solar cells with a ZnO layer deposited by the ion layer gas reaction (ILGAR) method yield superior efficiencies (15.0%) than the references with a chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer (14.1%). However, this high performance is only reached if the absorber is pretreated in a Cd{sup 2+}- and aqueous ammonia-containing bath prior to the ILGAR-ZnO deposition. The photovoltaic as well as the dark device parameters are strongly influenced by this treatment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as x-ray diffraction measurements reveal a different morphology and structure of ILGAR-ZnO layers on top of Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 3}-treatedmore » and on as-deposited absorbers, indicating a considerably modified absorber surface. By energy dispersive x-ray analysis in the TEM, Cd could only be identified at the ILGAR-ZnO/Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 3}-treated-CIGSSe interface of the respective cross sections, if the absorber was treated in a bath with an atypically high Cd{sup 2+}-concentration. In this case a Cd-containing thin layer between ZnO and CIGSSe was observed in TEM images.« less
  • Our group studied the effects of conduction band offset of window/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) layers on CIGS-based solar cell performance. To control the conduction band offset, we considered the use of a window layer of Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O thin film with a controllable band gap as an alternative to the conventional window layer using CdS film. From the measurement of valence band offset between Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O/CIGS layers and the band gap of each layer, we confirmed that the conduction band offset of Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O/CIGS layers could be controlled by changing the Mg content of the Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O film.more » The CIGS-based solar cells prepared for this study consisted of an ITO/Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O/CIGS/Mo/soda-lime glass structure. When the conduction band minimum of Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O was higher than that of CIGS, the performance of CIGS-based solar cells with a Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O window layer was equivalent to that of CIGS-based solar cells with CdS window layers. We confirmed that the control of the conduction band offset of the window/CIGS layers decreases the majority carrier recombination via the Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O/CIGS interface defects. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.« less