## A method to calculate pack ice driving forces

A method is proposed to calculate pack ice driving forces. In order to develop the method, stress distributions in a circular ice flow are calculated for various boundary loading conditions. The analysis is carried out using a special-purpose finite element program in which Sinha`s creep equation is used to model the behavior of ice. Charts relating pack ice driving forces to stresses in the ice flow are produced for both linear elastic and creep equations for ice behavior. The results indicate that, for a short period of loading time and at low stress levels, a linear elastic analysis can bemore »