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Title: A critical review of Arctic pack ice driving forces: New sources of data

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Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), Power Systems Engineering Research and Development (R&D) (OE-10)
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Cold Regions Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 138; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-04 21:27:29; Journal ID: ISSN 0165-232X
Country of Publication:

Citation Formats

Timco, G. W., Sudom, D., Frederking, R., Barker, A., and Wright, B. D.. A critical review of Arctic pack ice driving forces: New sources of data. Netherlands: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2017.02.010.
Timco, G. W., Sudom, D., Frederking, R., Barker, A., & Wright, B. D.. A critical review of Arctic pack ice driving forces: New sources of data. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2017.02.010.
Timco, G. W., Sudom, D., Frederking, R., Barker, A., and Wright, B. D.. 2017. "A critical review of Arctic pack ice driving forces: New sources of data". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2017.02.010.
title = {A critical review of Arctic pack ice driving forces: New sources of data},
author = {Timco, G. W. and Sudom, D. and Frederking, R. and Barker, A. and Wright, B. D.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.coldregions.2017.02.010},
journal = {Cold Regions Science and Technology},
number = C,
volume = 138,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2017,
month = 6

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.coldregions.2017.02.010

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  • A method is proposed to calculate pack ice driving forces. In order to develop the method, stress distributions in a circular ice flow are calculated for various boundary loading conditions. The analysis is carried out using a special-purpose finite element program in which Sinha`s creep equation is used to model the behavior of ice. Charts relating pack ice driving forces to stresses in the ice flow are produced for both linear elastic and creep equations for ice behavior. The results indicate that, for a short period of loading time and at low stress levels, a linear elastic analysis can bemore » used to calculate the pack ice driving forces. However, when the stress levels in the ice flow are high or the time span of load application is long, linear and nonlinear analyses produce much different values for pack ice driving forces.« less
  • The spectral composition of internal gravity waves under the Arctic pack ice during the Arctic Internal Wave Experiment (AIWEX) was found to be strikingly different from observations at lower latitudes. Time series of vertical displacement were inferred from horizontal and vertical arrays of temperature and conductivity sensors. Frequency spectra indicate a whiter spectrum (spectral slope near {minus}1) and a less energetic wave field (by a factor of 0.02) than observations at lower latitude. The analysis of vertical and horizontal coherences revealed a horizontally isotropic wave field that is consistent with assumptions of a random field of linear internal waves. Themore » wavenumber bandwidth of the wave field is about a factor of 10 wider than found at lower latitude.« less
  • Eight water-soluble organic anions were measured in 70 aerosol samples and 10 snow samples at Barrow, Alaska in March-April, 1989. The ranking of the ions in aerosols according to total (coarse + fine aerosol) median concentrations was acetate (44 ng m[sup [minus]3]), oxalate (27), benzoate (23), formate (22), propionate (6), methanesulfonate (5), lactate (4), and pyruvate (4). When added up, the median organic anion mass was 156 ng m[sup [minus]3]. The organic anions/nssSO[sub 4][sup =] mass ratio had a median of 0.18 and 0.07 in the coarse (>1 [mu]m) and fine (<1 [mu]m) size fractions, respectively, but can be verymore » high on occasions. On average, the organic anions made up more than 10% of the water-soluble aerosol mass. A similar ranking in concentration was also found for the organic ions in the snow pack samples. The organic anion/nssSO[sub 4][sup =] mass ratio in these samples was >0.5, substantially higher than in aerosols. 18 refs., 2 tabs.« less
  • Measurements and modeling studies strongly suggest that spring time depletion of ozone in the Arctic planetary boundary layer (PBL) is due to catalytic destruction by bromine atoms. However, the source of the bromine is uncertain. In this note, we propose that the source of the bromine at polar sunrise is the snow pack on the ice covering Arctic ocean and that it is released auto-catalytically, stimulated by a bromine seed from one of the brominated organic compounds, such as CHBr{sub 3}, by photolysis. In this manner {approximately}100 pptv of bromine can be transferred to the atmosphere where it can residemore » in the gas phase or, by scavenging, be partitioned in the aerosol or ice crystal phase. Moreover, it appears that heterogeneous recycling of bromine may be a process that self-terminates as ozone depletes to low levels. We also have included chlorine chemistry in the model in order to simulate inferred levels of chlorine atoms. This is important as it results in the production of HCHO which acts to convert post ozone depletion active bromine into HBr which is then returned to the snow pack or scavenged by aerosols or ice crystals. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1996« less
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