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Title: Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Handbook

Abstract

To ensure the safety of personnel and facilities, vehicle maintenance facilities are required by law and by guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the International Fire Code (IFC) to exhibit certain design features. They are also required to be fitted with certain fire protection equipment and devices because of the potential for fire or explosion in the event of fuel leakage or spills. All fuels have an explosion or fire potential if specific conditions are present. The hazard presented by liquid fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, results from the spillage of these liquids and subsequent ignition of vapors, causing a fire or explosion. Facilities that maintain liquid-fueled vehicles and implement appropriate safety measures are protected with ventilation systems designed to capture liquid fuel vapors at or near floor level. To minimize the potential for ignition in the event of a spill, receptacles, electrical fixtures, and hot-work operations, such as welding, are located outside of these areas. Compressed natural gas (CNG) is composed of methane with slight amounts of heavier simple hydrocarbons. Maintenance facilities that maintain CNG vehicles indoors must be protected against fire and explosion. However, the means of ensuring safety are different from those employedmore » for liquid fuels because of the gaseous nature of methane and the fact that it is lighter than air. Because CNG is lighter than air, a release will rise to the ceiling of the maintenance facility and quickly dissipate rather than remaining at or near floor level like liquid fuel vapors. Although some of the means of protection for CNG vehicle maintenance facilities are similar to those used for liquid-fueled vehicles (ventilation and elimination of ignition sources), the types and placement of the protection equipment are different because of the behavior of the different fuels. The nature of gaseous methane may also require additional safeguards, such as combustible gas detectors and control systems, or specialized space heating, which are not needed in facilities servicing liquid-fuel vehicles. This handbook covers maintenance facilities that service CNG-fueled vehicles. Although similar requirements are mandated for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fueled vehicles, LNG and LPG are not covered in this handbook.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Gladstein, Neandross & Associates, Santa Monica, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1397157
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-5400-67371; DOE/GO-102017-4918
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; compressed natural gas; CNG; Clean Cities; maintenance facilities; alternative fuel vehicles; AFVs; safety

Citation Formats

Kelly, Kay L., Ramsden, Margo M., Gonzales, John E., Lynch, Lauren, Coale, Bob, and Kohout, Jarrod. Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Handbook. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1397157.
Kelly, Kay L., Ramsden, Margo M., Gonzales, John E., Lynch, Lauren, Coale, Bob, & Kohout, Jarrod. Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Handbook. United States. doi:10.2172/1397157.
Kelly, Kay L., Ramsden, Margo M., Gonzales, John E., Lynch, Lauren, Coale, Bob, and Kohout, Jarrod. 2017. "Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Handbook". United States. doi:10.2172/1397157. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1397157.
@article{osti_1397157,
title = {Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Handbook},
author = {Kelly, Kay L. and Ramsden, Margo M. and Gonzales, John E. and Lynch, Lauren and Coale, Bob and Kohout, Jarrod},
abstractNote = {To ensure the safety of personnel and facilities, vehicle maintenance facilities are required by law and by guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the International Fire Code (IFC) to exhibit certain design features. They are also required to be fitted with certain fire protection equipment and devices because of the potential for fire or explosion in the event of fuel leakage or spills. All fuels have an explosion or fire potential if specific conditions are present. The hazard presented by liquid fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, results from the spillage of these liquids and subsequent ignition of vapors, causing a fire or explosion. Facilities that maintain liquid-fueled vehicles and implement appropriate safety measures are protected with ventilation systems designed to capture liquid fuel vapors at or near floor level. To minimize the potential for ignition in the event of a spill, receptacles, electrical fixtures, and hot-work operations, such as welding, are located outside of these areas. Compressed natural gas (CNG) is composed of methane with slight amounts of heavier simple hydrocarbons. Maintenance facilities that maintain CNG vehicles indoors must be protected against fire and explosion. However, the means of ensuring safety are different from those employed for liquid fuels because of the gaseous nature of methane and the fact that it is lighter than air. Because CNG is lighter than air, a release will rise to the ceiling of the maintenance facility and quickly dissipate rather than remaining at or near floor level like liquid fuel vapors. Although some of the means of protection for CNG vehicle maintenance facilities are similar to those used for liquid-fueled vehicles (ventilation and elimination of ignition sources), the types and placement of the protection equipment are different because of the behavior of the different fuels. The nature of gaseous methane may also require additional safeguards, such as combustible gas detectors and control systems, or specialized space heating, which are not needed in facilities servicing liquid-fuel vehicles. This handbook covers maintenance facilities that service CNG-fueled vehicles. Although similar requirements are mandated for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fueled vehicles, LNG and LPG are not covered in this handbook.},
doi = {10.2172/1397157},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • To ensure the safety of personnel and facilities, vehicle maintenance facilities are required by law and by guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the International Fire Code (IFC) to exhibit certain design features. They are also required to be fitted with certain fire protection equipment and devices because of the potential for fire or explosion in the event of fuel leakage or spills. All fuels have an explosion or fire potential if specific conditions are present. This handbook covers the primary elements that must be considered when developing a CNG vehicle maintenance facility design that will protectmore » against the ignition of natural gas releases. It also discusses specific protocols and training needed to ensure safety.« less
  • Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed gas fueled large-scale vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operation envelopes. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase I work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest. Finally, scenario analyses were performed using detailed simulations and modeling to estimate the overpressure hazardsmore » from HAZOP defined scenarios. The results from Phase I will be used to identify significant risk contributors at NGV maintenance facilities, and are expected to form the basis for follow-on quantitative risk analysis work to address specific code requirements and identify effective accident prevention and mitigation strategies.« less
  • The principal safety issues which concern CNG suppliers, users and government officials were identified. A prioritized listing of safety related R and D projects which would alleviate the concerns was prepared. The safety concerns were identified by means of a mail survey of equipment suppliers, gas utilities, consumers and government agencies. Further information was obtained through follow-up interviews with respondents. The safety R and D conducted in the past or currently underway was reviewed. Existing and proposed safety regulations were analyzed to identify the R and D needed for the CNG industry to meet the requirements.
  • In July 1989 the President submitted to Congress his Administration's proposals for revising the Clean Air Act. One major component of his plan is the Clean Alternative Fuels Program. The program would replace a portion of the motor vehicle fleet in certain cities with new vehicles that meet stringent air emission limits operating on clean burning fuels such as methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, electricity, and reformulate gasoline. The report, released by EPA, is the third in a series of reports that will discuss the economic and environmental issues associated with each of these fuels.