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Title: Phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling of developmental exposure to the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, reveals hepatotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish

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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 308; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-04 09:08:02; Journal ID: ISSN 0041-008X
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Haggard, Derik E., Noyes, Pamela D., Waters, Katrina M., and Tanguay, Robert L.. Phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling of developmental exposure to the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, reveals hepatotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2016.08.013.
Haggard, Derik E., Noyes, Pamela D., Waters, Katrina M., & Tanguay, Robert L.. Phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling of developmental exposure to the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, reveals hepatotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2016.08.013.
Haggard, Derik E., Noyes, Pamela D., Waters, Katrina M., and Tanguay, Robert L.. Sat . "Phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling of developmental exposure to the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, reveals hepatotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2016.08.013.
title = {Phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling of developmental exposure to the antimicrobial agent, triclosan, reveals hepatotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish},
author = {Haggard, Derik E. and Noyes, Pamela D. and Waters, Katrina M. and Tanguay, Robert L.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2016.08.013},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = C,
volume = 308,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Sat Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.taap.2016.08.013

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Cited by: 5works
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  • Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent commonly found in a variety of personal care products and cosmetics. TCS readily enters the environment through wastewater and is detected in human plasma, urine, and breast milk due to its widespread use. Studies have implicated TCS as a disruptor of thyroid and estrogen signaling; therefore, research examining the developmental effects of TCS is warranted. In this study, we used embryonic zebrafish to investigate the developmental toxicity and potential mechanism of action of TCS. Embryos were exposed to graded concentrations of TCS from 6 to 120 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and the concentration where 80%more » of the animals had mortality or morbidity at 120 hpf (EC{sub 80}) was calculated. Transcriptomic profiling was conducted on embryos exposed to the EC{sub 80} (7.37 μM). We identified a total of 922 significant differentially expressed transcripts (FDR adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05; fold change ≥ 2). Pathway and gene ontology enrichment analyses identified biological networks and transcriptional hubs involving normal liver functioning, suggesting TCS may be hepatotoxic in zebrafish. Tissue-specific gene enrichment analysis further supported the role of the liver as a target organ for TCS toxicity. We also examined the in vitro bioactivity profile of TCS reported by the ToxCast screening program. TCS had a diverse bioactivity profile and was a hit in 217 of the 385 assay endpoints we identified. We observed similarities in gene expression and hepatic steatosis assays; however, hit data for TCS were more concordant with the hypothesized CAR/PXR activity of TCS from rodent and human in vitro studies. - Highlights: • Triclosan is a common antimicrobial agent with widespread human exposure. • Exposure to the triclosan EC{sub 80} causes robust gene expression changes in zebrafish. • The liver may be a target organ of triclosan toxicity in embryonic zebrafish. • Triclosan disrupts normal liver functioning and development in embryonic zebrafish. • A summary of triclosan's bioactivity profile in the ToxCast program is discussed.« less
  • The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known inmore » vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.« less
  • The toxic effects of cadmium and other metals have been well established. A primary target of these metals is known to be the olfactory system, and fish exposed to a number of different waterborne metals display deficiencies in olfaction. Importantly, exposure over embryonic/larval development periods can cause deficits in chemosensory function in juvenile fish, but the specific cell types affected are unknown. We have previously characterized a transgenic zebrafish strain expressing the green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene linked to the hsp70 gene promoter, and shown it to be a useful tool for examining cell-specific toxicity in living embryos and larvae.more » Here we show that the hsp70/eGFP transgene is strongly and specifically upregulated within the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of transgenic zebrafish larvae following a brief 3-h exposure to water-borne cadmium. This molecular response was closely correlated to an endpoint for tissue damage within the olfactory placode, namely cell death. Furthermore, cadmium-induced olfactory cytotoxicity in zebrafish larvae gives rise to more permanent effects. Juvenile zebrafish briefly exposed to cadmium during early larval development display deficits in olfactory-dependent predator avoidance behaviors 4-6 weeks after a return to clean water. Lateral line neuromasts of exposed zebrafish larvae also activate both the endogenous hsp70 gene and the hsp70/eGFP transgene. The data reveal that even a very brief exposure period that gives rise to cell death within the developing olfactory placode results in long-term deficits in olfaction, and that hsp70/eGFP may serve as an effective indicator of sublethal cadmium exposure in sensory cells.« less
  • Due to its unique physicochemical and optical properties, C{sub 60} has raised interest in commercialization for a variety of products. While several reports have determined this nanomaterial to act as a powerful antioxidant, many other studies have demonstrated a strong oxidative potential through photoactivation. To directly address the oxidative potential of C{sub 60}, the effects of light and chemical supplementation and depletion of glutathione (GSH) on C{sub 60}-induced toxicity were evaluated. Embryonic zebrafish were used as a model organism to examine the potential of C{sub 60} to elicit oxidative stress responses. Reduced light during C{sub 60} exposure significantly decreased mortalitymore » and the incidence of fin malformations and pericardial edema at 200 and 300 ppb C{sub 60}. Embryos co-exposed to the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), also showed reduced mortality and pericardial edema; however, fin malformations were not reduced. Conversely, co-exposure to the GSH synthesis inhibitors, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and diethyl maleate (DEM), increased the sensitivity of zebrafish to C{sub 60} exposure. Co-exposure of C{sub 60} or its hydroxylated derivative, C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24}, with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in increased mortality along the concentration gradient of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for both materials. Microarrays were used to examine the effects of C{sub 60} on the global gene expression at two time points, 36 and 48 h post fertilization (hpf). At both life stages there were alterations in the expression of several key stress response genes including glutathione-S-transferase, glutamate cysteine ligase, ferritin, {alpha}-tocopherol transport protein and heat shock protein 70. These results support the hypothesis that C{sub 60} induces oxidative stress in this model system.« less
  • Ketamine, one anesthetic used as an illicit drug, has been detected both in freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, knowledge of its impact on aquatic life is still limited. This study aimed to test its effects in zebrafish embryos by analyzing its time- and dose-dependent developmental toxicity and long-term behavioral changes. The 24 h-LC{sub 50} was calculated from percent survival using probit analysis. Based on the 24 h-LC{sub 50} (94.4 mg L{sup −1}), embryos (2 hour post-fertilization - hpf) were divided into four groups, including control, and exposed for 24 h to ketamine concentrations of 50, 70 or 90 mg L{supmore » −1}. Developmental parameters were evaluated on the course of the experimental period, and anatomical abnormalities and locomotor deficits were analyzed at 144 hpf. Although the portion of ketamine transferred into the embryo was higher in the lowest exposed group (about 0.056 ± 0.020 pmol per embryo), the results showed that endpoints such as increased mortality, edema, heart rate alterations, malformation and abnormal growth rates were significantly affected. At 144 hpf, the developmental abnormalities included thoracic and trunk abnormalities in the groups exposed to 70 and 90 mg L{sup −1}. Defects in cartilage (alcian blue) and bone (calcein) elements also corroborated the craniofacial anomalies observed. A significant up-regulation of the development-related gene nog3 was detected by qRT-PCR at 8 hpf. Early exposure to ketamine also resulted in long-term behavioral changes, such as an increase in thigmotaxis and disruption of avoidance behavior at 144 hpf. Altogether, this study provides new evidence on the ketamine teratogenic potential, indicating a possible pharmacological impact of ketamine in aquatic environments. - Highlights: • 24 h exposure to ketamine increases mortality. • Morphological changes were observed after exposure. • Exposure to ketamine leads to severe craniofacial anomalies. • Developmental gene expression changes in response to ketamine. • Developmental ketamine exposure produces lasting behavioral changes.« less