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Title: High-Voltage Aqueous Magnesium Ion Batteries

Abstract

Nonaqueous rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries suffer from the complicated and moisture-sensitive electrolyte chemistry. Besides electrolytes, the practicality of a Mg battery is also confined by the absence of high-performance electrode materials due to the intrinsically slow Mg 2+ diffusion in the solids. In this work, we demonstrated a rechargeable aqueous magnesium ion battery (AMIB) concept of high energy density, fast kinetics, and reversibility. Using a superconcentration approach we expanded the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte to 2.0 V. More importantly, two new Mg ion host materials, Li superconcentration approach we expanded the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte to 2.0 V. More importantly, two new Mg ion host materials, Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 and poly pyromellitic dianhydride, were developed and employed as cathode and anode electrodes, respectively. Based on comparisons of the aqueous and nonaqueous systems, the role of water is identified to be critical in the Mg ion mobility in the intercalation host but remaining little detrimental to its non-diffusion controlled process. Finally, compared with the previously reported Mg ion cell delivers an unprecedented high power density of 6400 W kg ion cell delivers an unprecedented high power density of 6400 W kg while retainingmore » 92% of the initial capacity after 6000 cycles, pushing the Mg ion cell to a brand new stage.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Army Research Lab., Adelphi, MD (United States). Electrochemistry Branch, Sensor and Electron Devices Directorate, Power and Energy Division
  2. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
  3. Army Research Lab., Adelphi, MD (United States). Electrochemistry Branch, Sensor and Electron Devices Directorate, Power and Energy Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1396421
Grant/Contract Number:
AR0000389
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
ACS Central Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2374-7943
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Wang, Fei, Fan, Xiulin, Gao, Tao, Sun, Wei, Ma, Zhaohui, Yang, Chongyin, Han, Fudong, Xu, Kang, and Wang, Chunsheng. High-Voltage Aqueous Magnesium Ion Batteries. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.7b00361.
Wang, Fei, Fan, Xiulin, Gao, Tao, Sun, Wei, Ma, Zhaohui, Yang, Chongyin, Han, Fudong, Xu, Kang, & Wang, Chunsheng. High-Voltage Aqueous Magnesium Ion Batteries. United States. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.7b00361.
Wang, Fei, Fan, Xiulin, Gao, Tao, Sun, Wei, Ma, Zhaohui, Yang, Chongyin, Han, Fudong, Xu, Kang, and Wang, Chunsheng. 2017. "High-Voltage Aqueous Magnesium Ion Batteries". United States. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.7b00361.
@article{osti_1396421,
title = {High-Voltage Aqueous Magnesium Ion Batteries},
author = {Wang, Fei and Fan, Xiulin and Gao, Tao and Sun, Wei and Ma, Zhaohui and Yang, Chongyin and Han, Fudong and Xu, Kang and Wang, Chunsheng},
abstractNote = {Nonaqueous rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries suffer from the complicated and moisture-sensitive electrolyte chemistry. Besides electrolytes, the practicality of a Mg battery is also confined by the absence of high-performance electrode materials due to the intrinsically slow Mg2+ diffusion in the solids. In this work, we demonstrated a rechargeable aqueous magnesium ion battery (AMIB) concept of high energy density, fast kinetics, and reversibility. Using a superconcentration approach we expanded the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte to 2.0 V. More importantly, two new Mg ion host materials, Li superconcentration approach we expanded the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte to 2.0 V. More importantly, two new Mg ion host materials, Li3V2(PO4)3 and poly pyromellitic dianhydride, were developed and employed as cathode and anode electrodes, respectively. Based on comparisons of the aqueous and nonaqueous systems, the role of water is identified to be critical in the Mg ion mobility in the intercalation host but remaining little detrimental to its non-diffusion controlled process. Finally, compared with the previously reported Mg ion cell delivers an unprecedented high power density of 6400 W kg ion cell delivers an unprecedented high power density of 6400 W kg while retaining 92% of the initial capacity after 6000 cycles, pushing the Mg ion cell to a brand new stage.},
doi = {10.1021/acscentsci.7b00361},
journal = {ACS Central Science},
number = 10,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/acscentsci.7b00361

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  • Nonaqueous rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries suffer from the complicated and moisture-sensitive electrolyte chemistry. Besides electrolytes, the practicality of a Mg battery is also confined by the absence of high-performance electrode materials due to the intrinsically slow Mg 2+ diffusion in the solids. In this work, we demonstrated a rechargeable aqueous magnesium ion battery (AMIB) concept of high energy density, fast kinetics, and reversibility. Using a superconcentration approach we expanded the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte to 2.0 V. More importantly, two new Mg ion host materials, Li superconcentration approach we expanded the electrochemical stability window of the aqueousmore » electrolyte to 2.0 V. More importantly, two new Mg ion host materials, Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 and poly pyromellitic dianhydride, were developed and employed as cathode and anode electrodes, respectively. Based on comparisons of the aqueous and nonaqueous systems, the role of water is identified to be critical in the Mg ion mobility in the intercalation host but remaining little detrimental to its non-diffusion controlled process. Finally, compared with the previously reported Mg ion cell delivers an unprecedented high power density of 6400 W kg ion cell delivers an unprecedented high power density of 6400 W kg while retaining 92% of the initial capacity after 6000 cycles, pushing the Mg ion cell to a brand new stage.« less
  • We report a design of high voltage magnesium-lithium (Mg-Li) hybrid batteries through rational controls of the electrolyte chemistry, electrode materials and cell architectures. Prototype devices with LiFePO4 and LiMn 2O 4 cathodes exhibit voltages higher than 2.5 V (vs. Mg) and a high specific energy density of 246 Wh/kg under conditions that are amenable for practical applications. The successful demonstrations reported here could be a significant step forward for practical hybrid batteries.
  • Magnesium – ion batteries have the potential for high energy density but require new types of electrolytes for practical application. Ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes offer the opportunity for increased safety and broader voltage windows relative to traditional electrolytes. We present here a systematic study of both the conductivity and oxidative stability of hybrid electrolytes consisting of eleven ILs mixed with dipropylene glycol dimethylether (DPGDME) or acetonitrile (ACN) cosolvents and magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Mg(TFSI) 2). Our study finds a correlation of higher conductivity of ILs with unsaturated rings and short carbon chain lengths, but by contrast, these ILs also exhibited lower oxidationmore » voltage limits. For the cosolvent additive, although glymes have a demonstrated capability of coordination with Mg 2+ ions, a decrease in conductivity compared to acetonitrile hybrid electrolytes was observed. Lastly, when cycled within the appropriate voltage range, the IL-hybrid electrolytes that show the highest conductivity provide the best cathode magnesiation current densities and lowest polarization as demonstrated with a Mg 0.15MnO 2 and Mg 0.07V 2O 5 cathodes.« less