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Title: Universal Soldering of Lithium and Sodium Alloys on Various Substrates for Batteries

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA, University of Maryland Energy Research Center, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA
  2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1396412
Grant/Contract Number:
#DEEE0006860
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-04 06:09:09; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
Germany
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Wang, Chengwei, Xie, Hua, Zhang, Lei, Gong, Yunhui, Pastel, Glenn, Dai, Jiaqi, Liu, Boyang, Wachsman, Eric D., and Hu, Liangbing. Universal Soldering of Lithium and Sodium Alloys on Various Substrates for Batteries. Germany: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/aenm.201701963.
Wang, Chengwei, Xie, Hua, Zhang, Lei, Gong, Yunhui, Pastel, Glenn, Dai, Jiaqi, Liu, Boyang, Wachsman, Eric D., & Hu, Liangbing. Universal Soldering of Lithium and Sodium Alloys on Various Substrates for Batteries. Germany. doi:10.1002/aenm.201701963.
Wang, Chengwei, Xie, Hua, Zhang, Lei, Gong, Yunhui, Pastel, Glenn, Dai, Jiaqi, Liu, Boyang, Wachsman, Eric D., and Hu, Liangbing. 2017. "Universal Soldering of Lithium and Sodium Alloys on Various Substrates for Batteries". Germany. doi:10.1002/aenm.201701963.
@article{osti_1396412,
title = {Universal Soldering of Lithium and Sodium Alloys on Various Substrates for Batteries},
author = {Wang, Chengwei and Xie, Hua and Zhang, Lei and Gong, Yunhui and Pastel, Glenn and Dai, Jiaqi and Liu, Boyang and Wachsman, Eric D. and Hu, Liangbing},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/aenm.201701963},
journal = {Advanced Energy Materials},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {Germany},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on October 4, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • We report that lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) have recently attracted extensive interest in the energy-storage field after silence from the public view for several decades. However, many challenges still need to be overcome before their practical application, especially those that are related to the interfacial instability of Li metal anodes. Here, we reveal for the first time that the thickness of the degradation layer on the metallic Li anode surface shows a linear relationship with Li areal capacity utilization up to 4.0 mAh cm -2 in a practical LMB system. The increase in Li capacity utilization in each cyclemore » causes variations in the morphology and composition of the degradation layer on the Li anode. Under high Li capacity utilization, the current density for charge (i.e., Li deposition) is identified to be a key factor controlling the corrosion of the Li metal anode. Lastly, these fundamental findings provide new perspectives for the development of rechargeable LMBs.« less
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  • Many key performance characteristics of carbon-based lithium-ion battery anodes are largely determined by the strength of binding between lithium (Li) and sp 2 carbon (C), which can vary significantly with subtle changes in substrate structure, chemistry, and morphology. We use density functional theory calculations to investigate the interactions of Li with a wide variety of sp 2 C substrates, including pristine, defective, and strained graphene, planar C clusters, nanotubes, C edges, and multilayer stacks. In almost all cases, we find a universal linear relation between the Li-C binding energy and the work required to fill previously unoccupied electronic states withinmore » the substrate. This suggests that Li capacity is predominantly determined by two key factors—namely, intrinsic quantum capacitance limitations and the absolute placement of the Fermi level. This simple descriptor allows for straightforward prediction of the Li-C binding energy and related battery characteristics in candidate C materials based solely on the substrate electronic structure. It further suggests specific guidelines for designing more effective C-based anodes. Furthermore, this method should be broadly applicable to charge-transfer adsorption on planar substrates, and provides a phenomenological connection to established principles in supercapacitor and catalyst design.« less
  • Abstract not provided.
  • Emf measurements were made across the lithium-rich half of the lithium--aluminum system at temperatures from 390/sup 0/ to 550/sup 0/ by use of a cell of the type Li/LiCl--KCl (or LiF--LiCl--LiBr)/Li--Al. The lithium activity increases from 0.007 to approximately 0.7 over the composition range of 48 to 56 atomic percent (a/o) lithium (the ..beta..-phase region). A compound, Li/sub 3/Al/sub 2/, rather than Li/sub 2/Al, as reported in standard compilations, exists at temperatures up to the peritectic decomposition at 520/sup 0/C, and forms a two-phase region of high lithium activity (greater than 0.85) with the lithium-rich liquid phase. This compound hasmore » an estimated free energy of formation of -58 kJ/mole at 700/sup 0/K. The emf data indicate that the lithium-rich liquidus is about 2 a/o richer in lithium than the composition shown in standard compilations of binary phase diagrams. 6 figures, 1 table.« less