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Title: Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

Abstract

Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H 2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrudemore » is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet turbine fuel, a two-step catalytic upgrading process was developed at laboratory scale and then demonstrated at pre-pilot scale facility in Pittsburg, PA. Several drums of distillate products were produced, which were then distilled into unblended (neat) synthetic jet fuel and diesel products for a detailed characterization. Based on a detailed characterization of the synthetic jet fuel, a 20% synthetic, 80% commercial jet fuel blend was prepared, which met all specifications. An analysis of the synthetic diesel product showed that it has the promise of being a drop-in fuel as super-low (less than 15 ppm)-sulfur diesel fuel. A detailed economic analysis showed that the Battelle liquefaction process is economical at between 1000 metric tons/day (MT/day) and 2000 MT/day. The unit capital cost for Battelle CTL process for making jet fuel is 50K USD/daily bbl compared to 151K USD/daily bbl for indirect CTL, based on 2011 dollars. The jet-fuel selling cost at the refinery, including a 12% capital cost factor (which included profit), for the Battelle CTL process is 61USD/bbl (1.45 USD/gallon). This is competitive with crude oil price of 48 USD/bbl. At the same time, the GHG emissions of 3.56 MT CO 2/MT fuel were lower than the GHG emissions of 3.79 MT CO 2/MTfuel for petroleum-based fuels and 7.77 MT CO 2/MT fuel for indirect CTL. Thus, the use of bio-solvents completely eliminates the need for carbon capture in the case of Battelle CTL process. The superior economics and low GHG emissions for the Battelle CTL process has thus sparked worldwide interest and some potential commercialization opportunities are emerging.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE); USDOD; US Air Force; Ohio Development Services Agency (ODSA); Quantex Energy USA, LLC., Morgantown, WV (United States); Univ. of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States). Univ. of Dayton Research Inst. (UDRI); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Applied Research Associates (ARA), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Intertek Pilot Plant Services, Houston, TX (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1396265
Report Number(s):
Final Report
DOE Contract Number:
FE0023963
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Related Information: not applicable
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; Coal-to-Liquids; CTL; Synthetic Jet Fuel; Biomass-Derived Solvents; Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction

Citation Formats

Chauhan, Satya P., Garbark, Daniel B., Taha, Rachid, and Peterson, Rick. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1396265.
Chauhan, Satya P., Garbark, Daniel B., Taha, Rachid, & Peterson, Rick. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents. United States. doi:10.2172/1396265.
Chauhan, Satya P., Garbark, Daniel B., Taha, Rachid, and Peterson, Rick. Sat . "Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents". United States. doi:10.2172/1396265. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1396265.
@article{osti_1396265,
title = {Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents},
author = {Chauhan, Satya P. and Garbark, Daniel B. and Taha, Rachid and Peterson, Rick},
abstractNote = {Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet turbine fuel, a two-step catalytic upgrading process was developed at laboratory scale and then demonstrated at pre-pilot scale facility in Pittsburg, PA. Several drums of distillate products were produced, which were then distilled into unblended (neat) synthetic jet fuel and diesel products for a detailed characterization. Based on a detailed characterization of the synthetic jet fuel, a 20% synthetic, 80% commercial jet fuel blend was prepared, which met all specifications. An analysis of the synthetic diesel product showed that it has the promise of being a drop-in fuel as super-low (less than 15 ppm)-sulfur diesel fuel. A detailed economic analysis showed that the Battelle liquefaction process is economical at between 1000 metric tons/day (MT/day) and 2000 MT/day. The unit capital cost for Battelle CTL process for making jet fuel is 50K USD/daily bbl compared to 151K USD/daily bbl for indirect CTL, based on 2011 dollars. The jet-fuel selling cost at the refinery, including a 12% capital cost factor (which included profit), for the Battelle CTL process is 61USD/bbl (1.45 USD/gallon). This is competitive with crude oil price of 48 USD/bbl. At the same time, the GHG emissions of 3.56 MT CO2/MT fuel were lower than the GHG emissions of 3.79 MT CO2/MTfuel for petroleum-based fuels and 7.77 MT CO2/MT fuel for indirect CTL. Thus, the use of bio-solvents completely eliminates the need for carbon capture in the case of Battelle CTL process. The superior economics and low GHG emissions for the Battelle CTL process has thus sparked worldwide interest and some potential commercialization opportunities are emerging.},
doi = {10.2172/1396265},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Sep 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Sep 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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