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Title: Dating the formation of Jupiter using the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites.

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Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
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Conference: Presented at: 80th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, Santa Fe, NM, United States, Jul 23 - Jul 28, 2017
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Kruijer, T S, Burkhardt, C, Budde, G, and Kleine, T. Dating the formation of Jupiter using the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites.. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Kruijer, T S, Burkhardt, C, Budde, G, & Kleine, T. Dating the formation of Jupiter using the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites.. United States.
Kruijer, T S, Burkhardt, C, Budde, G, and Kleine, T. 2017. "Dating the formation of Jupiter using the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites.". United States. doi:.
title = {Dating the formation of Jupiter using the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites.},
author = {Kruijer, T S and Burkhardt, C and Budde, G and Kleine, T},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 7

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  • The age of Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System, is still unknown. Gas-giant planet formation likely involved the growth of large solid cores, followed by the accumulation of gas onto these cores. Thus, the gas-giant cores must have formed before dissipation of the solar nebula, which likely occurred within less than 10 My after Solar System formation. Although such rapid accretion of the gas-giant cores has successfully been modeled, until now it has not been possible to date their formation. Here, using molybdenum and tungsten isotope measurements on iron meteorites, we demonstrate that meteorites derive from two geneticallymore » distinct nebular reservoirs that coexisted and remained spatially separated between ~1 My and ~3–4 My after Solar System formation. The most plausible mechanism for this efficient separation is the formation of Jupiter, opening a gap in the disk and preventing the exchange of material between the two reservoirs. As such, our results indicate that Jupiter’s core grew to ~20 Earth masses within <1 My, followed by a more protracted growth to ~50 Earth masses until at least ~3–4 My after Solar System formation. Furthermore, Jupiter is the oldest planet of the Solar System, and its solid core formed well before the solar nebula gas dissipated, consistent with the core accretion model for giant planet formation.« less
  • The waste produced from processing spent fuel from the EBR II reactor must be processed into a waste form suitable for long term storage in Yucca Mountain. The method chosen produces zeolite granules mixed with glass frit, which must then be converted into a solid. This is accomplished by loading it into a can and heating to 900 C in a furnace regulated at 915 C. During heatup to 900 C, the zeolite and glass frit react and consolidate to produce a sodalite monolith. The resultant ceramic waste form (CWF) is then cooled. The waste is 52 cm in diametermore » and initially 300 cm long but consolidates to 150 cm long during the heating process. After cooling it is then inserted in a 5-DHLW/DOE SNF Long Canister. Without intervention, the waste takes 82 hours to heat up to 900 C in a furnace designed to geometrically fit the cylindrical waste form. This paper investigates the reduction in heating times possible with four different methods of additional heating through a center hole. The hole size is kept small to maximize the amount of CWF that is processed in a single run. A hole radius of 1.82 cm was selected which removes only 1% of the CWF. A reference computation was done with a specified inner hole surface temperature of 915 C to provide a benchmark for the amount of improvement which can be made. It showed that the heatup time can potentially be reduced to 43 hours with center hole heating. The first method, simply pouring high temperature liquid aluminum into the hole, did not produce any noticeable effect on reducing heat up times. The second method, flowing liquid aluminum through the hole, works well as long as the velocity is high enough (2.5 cm/sec) to prevent solidification of the aluminum during the initial front movement of the aluminum into the center hole. The velocity can be reduced to 1 cm/sec after the initial front has traversed the ceramic. This procedure reduces the formation time to near that of the reference case. The third method, flowing a gas through the center hole, also works well as long as the heat capacity times the velocity of the gas is equivalent to that of the flowing aluminum, and the velocity is high enough to produce an intermediate size heat transfer coefficient. The fourth method, using an electric heater, works well and heater sizes between 500 to 1000 Watts are adequate. These later three methods all can reduce the heatup time to 44 hours.« less
  • Rock varnish, a coating commonly found on rock surfaces in arid and semiarid regions, has a significant potential in paleoseismic studies, as a wide variety of Quaternary surfaces and surficial deposits can be dated with the rock varnish technique. If the formation of geomorphic surfaces or surficial deposits can be related to times of faulting or if faulting has broken or deformed such features, then rock varnish dating can be used to constrain maximum and minimum times of motion on the related fault.