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Title: Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant.

Abstract

For three years, Sandia National Laboratories, Georgia Institute of Technology, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign investigated a smart grid vision in which renewable-centric Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) provided ancillary services with interoperable distributed energy resources (DER). This team researched, designed, built, and evaluated real-time VPP designs incorporating DER forecasting, stochastic optimization, controls, and cyber security to construct a system capable of delivering reliable ancillary services, which have been traditionally provided by large power plants or other dedicated equipment. VPPs have become possible through an evolving landscape of state and national interconnection standards, which now require DER to include grid-support functionality and communications capabilities. This makes it possible for third party aggregators to provide a range of critical grid services such as voltage regulation, frequency regulation, and contingency reserves to grid operators. This paradigm (a) enables renewable energy, demand response, and energy storage to participate in grid operations and provide grid services, (b) improves grid reliability by providing additional operating reserves for utilities, independent system operators (ISOs), and regional transmission organization (RTOs), and (c) removes renewable energy high-penetration barriers by providing services with photovoltaics and wind resources that traditionally were the jobs of thermal generators. Therefore, it is believed VPPmore » deployment will have far-reaching positive consequences for grid operations and may provide a robust pathway to high penetrations of renewables on US power systems. In this report, we design VPPs to provide a range of grid-support services and demonstrate one VPP which simultaneously provides bulk-system energy and ancillary reserves.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1395430
Report Number(s):
SAND2017-10177
657159
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

Citation Formats

Johnson, Jay Tillay. Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant.. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1395430.
Johnson, Jay Tillay. Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant.. United States. doi:10.2172/1395430.
Johnson, Jay Tillay. 2017. "Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant.". United States. doi:10.2172/1395430. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1395430.
@article{osti_1395430,
title = {Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant.},
author = {Johnson, Jay Tillay},
abstractNote = {For three years, Sandia National Laboratories, Georgia Institute of Technology, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign investigated a smart grid vision in which renewable-centric Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) provided ancillary services with interoperable distributed energy resources (DER). This team researched, designed, built, and evaluated real-time VPP designs incorporating DER forecasting, stochastic optimization, controls, and cyber security to construct a system capable of delivering reliable ancillary services, which have been traditionally provided by large power plants or other dedicated equipment. VPPs have become possible through an evolving landscape of state and national interconnection standards, which now require DER to include grid-support functionality and communications capabilities. This makes it possible for third party aggregators to provide a range of critical grid services such as voltage regulation, frequency regulation, and contingency reserves to grid operators. This paradigm (a) enables renewable energy, demand response, and energy storage to participate in grid operations and provide grid services, (b) improves grid reliability by providing additional operating reserves for utilities, independent system operators (ISOs), and regional transmission organization (RTOs), and (c) removes renewable energy high-penetration barriers by providing services with photovoltaics and wind resources that traditionally were the jobs of thermal generators. Therefore, it is believed VPP deployment will have far-reaching positive consequences for grid operations and may provide a robust pathway to high penetrations of renewables on US power systems. In this report, we design VPPs to provide a range of grid-support services and demonstrate one VPP which simultaneously provides bulk-system energy and ancillary reserves.},
doi = {10.2172/1395430},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • Calif. Various design possibilities and variations thereof are evaluated to determine the specific concept and size most likely to result in economic power generation. A conceptual design is prepared in sufficient detail to estimate capital costs, fuel cycle costs, operating costs, research and development work required, and operating characteristics. The reductions in ultimate costs that might be achieved by multiple units are evaluated. A parallel conceptual design and evaluation effort on a 75 Mw(e) organic cooled and moderated reactor is reported. The results of a study to compare the costs for a conventional fossil fueled power plant with an OCMRmore » power plant are presented. Based on 1963 costs, the power generation costs are 6.77, 8.12, and 13.12 mills/ kwh for a 300 Mw(e) coal-fired plant, a 300 Mw(e) OCMR plant, and a 75 Mw(e) OCMR plant, respectively. (W.D.M.)« less
  • In June, 1976, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a contract to an industry team consisting of Burns and Roe Industrial Services Corporation (BRISC), United Technologies Corporation (UTC), and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) for an ''Evaluation of a Pressurized, Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Combined Cycle Power Plant Design.'' The results of this program indicate that pressurized fluidized bed combustion systems,operating in a combined cycle power plant, offer great potential for producing electrical energy from high sulfur coal within environmental constraints, at a cost less than conventional power plants utilizing low sulfur coal or flue gasmore » desulfurization (FGD) equipment, and at higher efficiency than conventional power plants. As a result of various trade-off studies, a 600 MWe combined cycle arrangement incorporating a PFB combustor and supplementary firing of the gas turbine exhaust in an atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) steam generator has been selected for detailed evaluation. This volume contains information on commercial plant criteria, design, and cost.« less
  • Accomplishments during the period January 1 through March 31, 1977 in the ''Evaluation of a Pressurized-Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Combined Cycle Power Plant Conceptual Design'' are reported. During this period, it was decided to concentrate all future work on the cycle containing PFB's exhausting to gas turbines followed by a steam cooled AFB fired boiler. This cycle offers greater power output and efficiency than one using a simple waste heat boiler and assumes that the AFB combustors will be available in the same time period as the PFB combustors. Design of the PFB and AFB combustors continues. Efforts continued onmore » the development of layout and equipment arrangements. Heat transfer and stress analysis were initiated on the high temperature gas transport lines from the PFB's to the inlet to the gas turbine. Data on the mechanical equipment for the steam system were compiled. Work continued in the areas of civil/structural engineering, instrumentation and control, and electrical engineering. Trade-off studies continued to identify the range of parameters for a 600 MW(e) combined cycle power plant; e.g., pressure rates, engine configurations, cycle configurations, operating temperature, etc. Efforts were resumed on the development of an order of magnitude capital and operating cost estimate for a spent sorbent regeneration system sized for a 600 MW(e) PFB plant.« less
  • A conceptual design for an electric power generating plant that will directly combust high-sulfur coal in a pressurized, fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) and produce electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner was prepared. The plant should have the following characteristics: air-cooled pressurized fluidized bed coupled with gas turbine; ability to handle wide variety of coals; no fuel ash fusion; limited alkali metal evaporation; low bed velocity; ease of bed temperature control; minimum tube rupture problems; reduced bed cross section and size of gas handling equipment; gas turbine exhaust supplementally fired in an atmospheric fluid bed steam generator to enhance cycle efficiency;more » and low calcium/sulfur mol ratio requirements so that capital and operating costs for sorbent handling are minimized. The cycle is described, and the mechanical, electrical, structural, environmental, site, and instrumentation requirements of the pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle power plant are presented.« less