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Title: Nucleation and crystal growth behavior of nepheline in simulated high-level waste glasses

Abstract

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with supporting glass formulation development and process control strategies in key technical areas, relevant to the Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and related to high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Of specific interest is the development of predictive models for crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in HLW glasses formulated at high alumina concentrations. This report summarizes recent progress by researchers at SRNL towards developing a predicative tool for quantifying nepheline crystallization in HLW glass canisters using laboratory experiments. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain the temperature regions over which nucleation and growth of nepheline occur in three simulated HLW glasses - two glasses representative of WTP projections and one glass representative of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) product. The DWPF glass, which has been studied previously, was chosen as a reference composition and for comparison purposes. Complementary quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy confirmed the validity of the methodology to determine nucleation and growth behavior as a function of temperature. The nepheline crystallization growth region was determined to generally extend from ~ 500 to >850 °C,more » with the maximum growth rates occurring between 600 and 700 °C. For select WTP glass compositions (high Al2O3 and B2O3), the nucleation range extended from ~ 450 to 600 °C, with the maximum nucleation rates occurring at ~ 530 °C. For the DWPF glass composition, the nucleation range extended from ~ 450 to 750 °C with the maximum nucleation rate occurring at ~ 640 °C. The nepheline growth at the peak temperature, as determined by XRD, was between 35 - 75 wt.% /hour. A maximum nepheline growth rate of ~ 0.1 mm/hour at 700 °C was measured for the DWPF composition using optical microscopy. This research establishes a viable alternative to more traditional techniques for evaluating nepheline crystallization in large numbers of glasses, which are prohibitively time consuming or otherwise impractical. The ultimate objective is to combine the nucleation and growth information obtained from DSC, like that presented in this report, with computer simulations of glass cooling within the canister to accurately predict nepheline crystallization in HLW during processing through WTP.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1395257
Report Number(s):
SRNL-STI-2017-00517
TRN: US1800057
DOE Contract Number:  
AC09-08SR22470
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES; WASTE PROCESSING; CRYSTALLIZATION; GLASS; NUCLEATION; CRYSTAL GROWTH; CRYSTALS

Citation Formats

Fox, K., Amoroso, J., and Mcclane, D. Nucleation and crystal growth behavior of nepheline in simulated high-level waste glasses. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1395257.
Fox, K., Amoroso, J., & Mcclane, D. Nucleation and crystal growth behavior of nepheline in simulated high-level waste glasses. United States. doi:10.2172/1395257.
Fox, K., Amoroso, J., and Mcclane, D. Tue . "Nucleation and crystal growth behavior of nepheline in simulated high-level waste glasses". United States. doi:10.2172/1395257. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1395257.
@article{osti_1395257,
title = {Nucleation and crystal growth behavior of nepheline in simulated high-level waste glasses},
author = {Fox, K. and Amoroso, J. and Mcclane, D.},
abstractNote = {The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with supporting glass formulation development and process control strategies in key technical areas, relevant to the Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and related to high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Of specific interest is the development of predictive models for crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in HLW glasses formulated at high alumina concentrations. This report summarizes recent progress by researchers at SRNL towards developing a predicative tool for quantifying nepheline crystallization in HLW glass canisters using laboratory experiments. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain the temperature regions over which nucleation and growth of nepheline occur in three simulated HLW glasses - two glasses representative of WTP projections and one glass representative of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) product. The DWPF glass, which has been studied previously, was chosen as a reference composition and for comparison purposes. Complementary quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy confirmed the validity of the methodology to determine nucleation and growth behavior as a function of temperature. The nepheline crystallization growth region was determined to generally extend from ~ 500 to >850 °C, with the maximum growth rates occurring between 600 and 700 °C. For select WTP glass compositions (high Al2O3 and B2O3), the nucleation range extended from ~ 450 to 600 °C, with the maximum nucleation rates occurring at ~ 530 °C. For the DWPF glass composition, the nucleation range extended from ~ 450 to 750 °C with the maximum nucleation rate occurring at ~ 640 °C. The nepheline growth at the peak temperature, as determined by XRD, was between 35 - 75 wt.% /hour. A maximum nepheline growth rate of ~ 0.1 mm/hour at 700 °C was measured for the DWPF composition using optical microscopy. This research establishes a viable alternative to more traditional techniques for evaluating nepheline crystallization in large numbers of glasses, which are prohibitively time consuming or otherwise impractical. The ultimate objective is to combine the nucleation and growth information obtained from DSC, like that presented in this report, with computer simulations of glass cooling within the canister to accurately predict nepheline crystallization in HLW during processing through WTP.},
doi = {10.2172/1395257},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 26 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Sep 26 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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