# Early Time Dynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions

## Abstract

The initial stage following the collision of two relativistic nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is difficult to describe theoretically because it is strongly coupled and far from equilibrium. In this project, the early time dynamics following the nuclear collision was described using a recent development in string theory known as gauge/gravity duality by solving Einstein's equations in five-dimensional spacetime. The research in from this project has led to an understanding for the onset of hydrodynamic behavior out-of-equilibrium which has been called a 'paradigm change' in the field. It is likely that standard textbooks on hydrodynamics will have to be rewritten because of the findings from this project. Technical progress allowed the first ever numerical simulation of black hole mergers in asymptotic anti-de-Sitter spacetimes, as well as important insights into the stability of anti-de-Sitter spacetime away from spherical symmetry. The research conducted as part of this project has had a considerable impact in our understanding of Einstein's theory of general relativity. In a wider context, the results from this project can reasonably be expected to help understand the behavior of quantum systems at strong coupling, which include high-temperature superconductors, ultracold quantum gasesmore »

- Authors:

- Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1395031

- Report Number(s):
- DOE-UCB-SC0008132

- DOE Contract Number:
- SC0008132

- Resource Type:
- Technical Report

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

### Citation Formats

```
Romatschke, Paul.
```*Early Time Dynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions*. United States: N. p., 2012.
Web. doi:10.2172/1395031.

```
Romatschke, Paul.
```*Early Time Dynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions*. United States. doi:10.2172/1395031.

```
Romatschke, Paul. Sun .
"Early Time Dynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions". United States. doi:10.2172/1395031. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1395031.
```

```
@article{osti_1395031,
```

title = {Early Time Dynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions},

author = {Romatschke, Paul},

abstractNote = {The initial stage following the collision of two relativistic nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is difficult to describe theoretically because it is strongly coupled and far from equilibrium. In this project, the early time dynamics following the nuclear collision was described using a recent development in string theory known as gauge/gravity duality by solving Einstein's equations in five-dimensional spacetime. The research in from this project has led to an understanding for the onset of hydrodynamic behavior out-of-equilibrium which has been called a 'paradigm change' in the field. It is likely that standard textbooks on hydrodynamics will have to be rewritten because of the findings from this project. Technical progress allowed the first ever numerical simulation of black hole mergers in asymptotic anti-de-Sitter spacetimes, as well as important insights into the stability of anti-de-Sitter spacetime away from spherical symmetry. The research conducted as part of this project has had a considerable impact in our understanding of Einstein's theory of general relativity. In a wider context, the results from this project can reasonably be expected to help understand the behavior of quantum systems at strong coupling, which include high-temperature superconductors, ultracold quantum gases and novel materials such as graphene.},

doi = {10.2172/1395031},

journal = {},

number = ,

volume = ,

place = {United States},

year = {2012},

month = {7}

}