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Title: Vehicle lightweighting energy use impacts in U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1394674
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Sustainable Materials and Technologies
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-09-25 08:34:46; Journal ID: ISSN 2214-9937
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
Netherlands
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Das, Sujit, Graziano, Diane, Upadhyayula, Venkata K. K., Masanet, Eric, Riddle, Matthew, and Cresko, Joe. Vehicle lightweighting energy use impacts in U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. Netherlands: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016.04.001.
Das, Sujit, Graziano, Diane, Upadhyayula, Venkata K. K., Masanet, Eric, Riddle, Matthew, & Cresko, Joe. Vehicle lightweighting energy use impacts in U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016.04.001.
Das, Sujit, Graziano, Diane, Upadhyayula, Venkata K. K., Masanet, Eric, Riddle, Matthew, and Cresko, Joe. 2016. "Vehicle lightweighting energy use impacts in U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016.04.001.
@article{osti_1394674,
title = {Vehicle lightweighting energy use impacts in U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet},
author = {Das, Sujit and Graziano, Diane and Upadhyayula, Venkata K. K. and Masanet, Eric and Riddle, Matthew and Cresko, Joe},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.susmat.2016.04.001},
journal = {Sustainable Materials and Technologies},
number = C,
volume = 8,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.susmat.2016.04.001

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  • In this article, we estimate the potential energy benefits of lightweighting the light-duty vehicle fleet from both vehicle manufacturing and use perspectives using plausible lightweight vehicle designs involving several alternative lightweight materials, low- and high-end estimates of vehicle manufacturing energy, conventional and alternative powertrains, and two different market penetration scenarios for alternative powertrain light-duty vehicles at the fleet level. Cumulative life cycle energy savings (through 2050) across the nine material scenarios based on the conventional powertrain in the U.S. vehicle fleet range from -29 to 94 billion GJ, with the greatest savings achieved by multi-material vehicles that select different lightweightmore » materials to meet specific design purposes. Lightweighting alternative-powertrain vehicles could produce significant energy savings in the U.S. vehicle fleet, although their improved powertrain efficiencies lessen the energy savings opportunities for lightweighting. A maximum level of cumulative energy savings of lightweighting the U.S. light-duty vehicle through 2050 is estimated to be 66.1billion GJ under the conventional-vehicle dominated business-as-usual penetration scenario.« less
  • Silicon carbide and gallium nitride, two leading wide band gap semiconductors with significant potential in electric vehicle power electronics, are examined from a life cycle energy perspective and compared with incumbent silicon in U.S. light-duty electric vehicle fleet. Cradle-to-gate, silicon carbide is estimated to require more than twice the energy as silicon. However, the magnitude of vehicle use phase fuel savings potential is comparatively several orders of magnitude higher than the marginal increase in cradle-to-gate energy. Gallium nitride cradle-to-gate energy requirements are estimated to be similar to silicon, with use phase savings potential similar to or exceeding that of siliconmore » carbide. Potential energy reductions in the United States vehicle fleet are examined through several scenarios that consider the market adoption potential of electric vehicles themselves, as well as the market adoption potential of wide band gap semiconductors in electric vehicles. For the 2015–2050 time frame, cumulative energy savings associated with the deployment of wide band gap semiconductors are estimated to range from 2–20 billion GJ depending on market adoption dynamics.« less
  • The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel withmore » a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.« less
  • This paper determines the level of improvement in Federal Test Procedure (FTP) exhaust emissions realized by typical in-use vehicles over the last twenty years as emission standards have become increasingly stringent. Furthermore, this paper explores the likelihood that in-use emission performance improvements will continue now that emission standards have stabilized.