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Title: Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading

Abstract

The effects of electrical and mechanical loading on the behavior of domains and phases in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators (MAs) is studied using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and macroscopic property measurements. Rietveld refinement is carried out on measured diffraction patterns using a two-phase tetragonal (P4mm) and rhombohedral (R3m) model. Applying an electric field promotes the rhombohedral phase, while increasing compressive uniaxial pre-stress prior to electric field application favors the tetragonal phase. The competition between electrical and mechanical energy leads to a maximal difference between electric-field-induced phase fractions at 70 MPa pre-stress. Additionally, the available volume fraction of non-180° domain reorientation that can be accessed during electric field application increases with compressive pre-stress up to 70 MPa. The origin for enhanced strain and polarization with applied pre-stress is attributed to a combination of enhanced non-180° domain reorientation and electric-field-induced phase transitions. The suppression of both the electric-field-induced phase transitions and domain reorientation at high pre-stresses (>70 MPa) is attributed to a large mechanical energy barrier, and alludes to the competition of the electrical and mechanical energy within the MA during applied stimuli.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4]
  1. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Voestalpine Schienen GmbH, Leoben (Austria)
  3. Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben (Austria)
  4. Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben (Austria); Institut fur Struktur- und Funktionskeramik, Montanuniversitat Leoben (Austria)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1394660
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1356949
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Acta Materialia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 132; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; X-ray diffraction; Ferroelectrics; Electric field-induced phase transitions; PZT; Piezoactuator

Citation Formats

Esteves, Giovanni, Fancher, Chris M., Röhrig, Sören, Maier, Günther A., Jones, Jacob L., and Deluca, Marco. Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2017.04.014.
Esteves, Giovanni, Fancher, Chris M., Röhrig, Sören, Maier, Günther A., Jones, Jacob L., & Deluca, Marco. Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading. United States. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2017.04.014.
Esteves, Giovanni, Fancher, Chris M., Röhrig, Sören, Maier, Günther A., Jones, Jacob L., and Deluca, Marco. Sat . "Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading". United States. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2017.04.014.
@article{osti_1394660,
title = {Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading},
author = {Esteves, Giovanni and Fancher, Chris M. and Röhrig, Sören and Maier, Günther A. and Jones, Jacob L. and Deluca, Marco},
abstractNote = {The effects of electrical and mechanical loading on the behavior of domains and phases in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators (MAs) is studied using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and macroscopic property measurements. Rietveld refinement is carried out on measured diffraction patterns using a two-phase tetragonal (P4mm) and rhombohedral (R3m) model. Applying an electric field promotes the rhombohedral phase, while increasing compressive uniaxial pre-stress prior to electric field application favors the tetragonal phase. The competition between electrical and mechanical energy leads to a maximal difference between electric-field-induced phase fractions at 70 MPa pre-stress. Additionally, the available volume fraction of non-180° domain reorientation that can be accessed during electric field application increases with compressive pre-stress up to 70 MPa. The origin for enhanced strain and polarization with applied pre-stress is attributed to a combination of enhanced non-180° domain reorientation and electric-field-induced phase transitions. The suppression of both the electric-field-induced phase transitions and domain reorientation at high pre-stresses (>70 MPa) is attributed to a large mechanical energy barrier, and alludes to the competition of the electrical and mechanical energy within the MA during applied stimuli.},
doi = {10.1016/j.actamat.2017.04.014},
journal = {Acta Materialia},
number = C,
volume = 132,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 08 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 08 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.actamat.2017.04.014

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • The effects of electrical and mechanical loading on the behavior of domains and phases in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators (MAs) is studied using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and macroscopic property measurements. Rietveld refinement is carried out on measured diffraction patterns using a two-phase tetragonal (P4mm) and rhombohedral (R3m) model. Applying an electric field promotes the rhombohedral phase, while increasing compressive uniaxial pre-stress prior to electric field application favors the tetragonal phase. The competition between electrical and mechanical energy leads to a maximal difference between electric-field-induced phase fractions at 70 MPa pre-stress. Additionally, the available volume fraction of non-180° domainmore » reorientation that can be accessed during electric field application increases with compressive pre-stress up to 70 MPa. The origin for enhanced strain and polarization with applied pre-stress is attributed to a combination of enhanced non-180° domain reorientation and electric-field-induced phase transitions. The suppression of both the electric-field-induced phase transitions and domain reorientation at high pre-stresses (>70 MPa) is attributed to a large mechanical energy barrier, and alludes to the competition of the electrical and mechanical energy within the MA during applied stimuli.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10{sup 8} cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatiguemore » index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications, such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.« less
  • Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10^8 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and themore » fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.« less