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Title: Plasma–wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification

Abstract

The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma–material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested inmore » the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W surface and a potential first-wall solution for DEMO.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; European Commission (EC)
Contributing Org.:
EUROfusion Consortium
OSTI Identifier:
1394582
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; 633053
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; plasma-facing components; plasma-surface interaction; power exhaust; particle exhaust; tungsten; beryllium

Citation Formats

Brezinsek, S., Coenen, J. W., Schwarz-Selinger, T., Schmid, K., Kirschner, A., Hakola, A., Tabares, F. L., van der Meiden, H. J., Mayoral, M. -L., Reinhart, M., Tsitrone, E., Ahlgren, T., Aints, M., Airila, M., Almaviva, S., Alves, E., Angot, T., Anita, V., Arredondo Parra, R., Aumayr, F., Balden, M., Bauer, J., Ben Yaala, M., Berger, B. M., Bisson, R., Björkas, C., Bogdanovic Radovic, I., Borodin, D., Bucalossi, J., Butikova, J., Butoi, B., Čadež, I., Caniello, R., Caneve, L., Cartry, G., Catarino, N., Čekada, M., Ciraolo, G., Ciupinski, L., Colao, F., Corre, Y., Costin, C., Craciunescu, T., Cremona, A., De Angeli, M., de Castro, A., Dejarnac, R., Dellasega, D., Dinca, P., Dittmar, T., Dobrea, C., Hansen, P., Drenik, A., Eich, T., Elgeti, S., Falie, D., Fedorczak, N., Ferro, Y., Fornal, T., Fortuna-Zalesna, E., Gao, L., Gasior, P., Gherendi, M., Ghezzi, F., Gosar, Ž., Greuner, H., Grigore, E., Grisolia, C., Groth, M., Gruca, M., Grzonka, J., Gunn, J. P., Hassouni, K., Heinola, K., Höschen, T., Huber, S., Jacob, W., Jepu, I., Jiang, X., Jogi, I., Kaiser, A., Karhunen, J., Kelemen, M., Köppen, M., Koslowski, H. R., Kreter, A., Kubkowska, M., Laan, M., Laguardia, L., Lahtinen, A., Lasa, A., Lazic, V., Lemahieu, N., Likonen, J., Linke, J., Litnovsky, A., Linsmeier, Ch., Loewenhoff, T., Lungu, C., Lungu, M., Maddaluno, G., Maier, H., Makkonen, T., Manhard, A., Marandet, Y., Markelj, S., Marot, L., Martin, C., Martin-Rojo, A. B., Martynova, Y., Mateus, R., Matveev, D., Mayer, M., Meisl, G., Mellet, N., Michau, A., Miettunen, J., Möller, S., Morgan, T. W., Mougenot, J., Mozetič, M., Nemanič, V., Neu, R., Nordlund, K., Oberkofler, M., Oyarzabal, E., Panjan, M., Pardanaud, C., Paris, P., Passoni, M., Pegourie, B., Pelicon, P., Petersson, P., Piip, K., Pintsuk, G., Pompilian, G. O., Popa, G., Porosnicu, C., Primc, G., Probst, M., Räisänen, J., Rasinski, M., Ratynskaia, S., Reiser, D., Ricci, D., Richou, M., Riesch, J., Riva, G., Rosinski, M., Roubin, P., Rubel, M., Ruset, C., Safi, E., Sergienko, G., Siketic, Z., Sima, A., Spilker, B., Stadlmayr, R., Steudel, I., Ström, P., Tadic, T., Tafalla, D., Tale, I., Terentyev, D., Terra, A., Tiron, V., Tiseanu, I., Tolias, P., Tskhakaya, D., Uccello, A., Unterberg, B., Uytdenhoven, I., Vassallo, E., Vavpetič, P., Veis, P., Velicu, I. L., Vernimmen, J. W. M., Voitkans, A., von Toussaint, U., Weckmann, A., Wirtz, M., Založnik, A., and Zaplotnik, R. Plasma–wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa796e.
Brezinsek, S., Coenen, J. W., Schwarz-Selinger, T., Schmid, K., Kirschner, A., Hakola, A., Tabares, F. L., van der Meiden, H. J., Mayoral, M. -L., Reinhart, M., Tsitrone, E., Ahlgren, T., Aints, M., Airila, M., Almaviva, S., Alves, E., Angot, T., Anita, V., Arredondo Parra, R., Aumayr, F., Balden, M., Bauer, J., Ben Yaala, M., Berger, B. M., Bisson, R., Björkas, C., Bogdanovic Radovic, I., Borodin, D., Bucalossi, J., Butikova, J., Butoi, B., Čadež, I., Caniello, R., Caneve, L., Cartry, G., Catarino, N., Čekada, M., Ciraolo, G., Ciupinski, L., Colao, F., Corre, Y., Costin, C., Craciunescu, T., Cremona, A., De Angeli, M., de Castro, A., Dejarnac, R., Dellasega, D., Dinca, P., Dittmar, T., Dobrea, C., Hansen, P., Drenik, A., Eich, T., Elgeti, S., Falie, D., Fedorczak, N., Ferro, Y., Fornal, T., Fortuna-Zalesna, E., Gao, L., Gasior, P., Gherendi, M., Ghezzi, F., Gosar, Ž., Greuner, H., Grigore, E., Grisolia, C., Groth, M., Gruca, M., Grzonka, J., Gunn, J. P., Hassouni, K., Heinola, K., Höschen, T., Huber, S., Jacob, W., Jepu, I., Jiang, X., Jogi, I., Kaiser, A., Karhunen, J., Kelemen, M., Köppen, M., Koslowski, H. R., Kreter, A., Kubkowska, M., Laan, M., Laguardia, L., Lahtinen, A., Lasa, A., Lazic, V., Lemahieu, N., Likonen, J., Linke, J., Litnovsky, A., Linsmeier, Ch., Loewenhoff, T., Lungu, C., Lungu, M., Maddaluno, G., Maier, H., Makkonen, T., Manhard, A., Marandet, Y., Markelj, S., Marot, L., Martin, C., Martin-Rojo, A. B., Martynova, Y., Mateus, R., Matveev, D., Mayer, M., Meisl, G., Mellet, N., Michau, A., Miettunen, J., Möller, S., Morgan, T. W., Mougenot, J., Mozetič, M., Nemanič, V., Neu, R., Nordlund, K., Oberkofler, M., Oyarzabal, E., Panjan, M., Pardanaud, C., Paris, P., Passoni, M., Pegourie, B., Pelicon, P., Petersson, P., Piip, K., Pintsuk, G., Pompilian, G. O., Popa, G., Porosnicu, C., Primc, G., Probst, M., Räisänen, J., Rasinski, M., Ratynskaia, S., Reiser, D., Ricci, D., Richou, M., Riesch, J., Riva, G., Rosinski, M., Roubin, P., Rubel, M., Ruset, C., Safi, E., Sergienko, G., Siketic, Z., Sima, A., Spilker, B., Stadlmayr, R., Steudel, I., Ström, P., Tadic, T., Tafalla, D., Tale, I., Terentyev, D., Terra, A., Tiron, V., Tiseanu, I., Tolias, P., Tskhakaya, D., Uccello, A., Unterberg, B., Uytdenhoven, I., Vassallo, E., Vavpetič, P., Veis, P., Velicu, I. L., Vernimmen, J. W. M., Voitkans, A., von Toussaint, U., Weckmann, A., Wirtz, M., Založnik, A., & Zaplotnik, R. Plasma–wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa796e.
Brezinsek, S., Coenen, J. W., Schwarz-Selinger, T., Schmid, K., Kirschner, A., Hakola, A., Tabares, F. L., van der Meiden, H. J., Mayoral, M. -L., Reinhart, M., Tsitrone, E., Ahlgren, T., Aints, M., Airila, M., Almaviva, S., Alves, E., Angot, T., Anita, V., Arredondo Parra, R., Aumayr, F., Balden, M., Bauer, J., Ben Yaala, M., Berger, B. M., Bisson, R., Björkas, C., Bogdanovic Radovic, I., Borodin, D., Bucalossi, J., Butikova, J., Butoi, B., Čadež, I., Caniello, R., Caneve, L., Cartry, G., Catarino, N., Čekada, M., Ciraolo, G., Ciupinski, L., Colao, F., Corre, Y., Costin, C., Craciunescu, T., Cremona, A., De Angeli, M., de Castro, A., Dejarnac, R., Dellasega, D., Dinca, P., Dittmar, T., Dobrea, C., Hansen, P., Drenik, A., Eich, T., Elgeti, S., Falie, D., Fedorczak, N., Ferro, Y., Fornal, T., Fortuna-Zalesna, E., Gao, L., Gasior, P., Gherendi, M., Ghezzi, F., Gosar, Ž., Greuner, H., Grigore, E., Grisolia, C., Groth, M., Gruca, M., Grzonka, J., Gunn, J. P., Hassouni, K., Heinola, K., Höschen, T., Huber, S., Jacob, W., Jepu, I., Jiang, X., Jogi, I., Kaiser, A., Karhunen, J., Kelemen, M., Köppen, M., Koslowski, H. R., Kreter, A., Kubkowska, M., Laan, M., Laguardia, L., Lahtinen, A., Lasa, A., Lazic, V., Lemahieu, N., Likonen, J., Linke, J., Litnovsky, A., Linsmeier, Ch., Loewenhoff, T., Lungu, C., Lungu, M., Maddaluno, G., Maier, H., Makkonen, T., Manhard, A., Marandet, Y., Markelj, S., Marot, L., Martin, C., Martin-Rojo, A. B., Martynova, Y., Mateus, R., Matveev, D., Mayer, M., Meisl, G., Mellet, N., Michau, A., Miettunen, J., Möller, S., Morgan, T. W., Mougenot, J., Mozetič, M., Nemanič, V., Neu, R., Nordlund, K., Oberkofler, M., Oyarzabal, E., Panjan, M., Pardanaud, C., Paris, P., Passoni, M., Pegourie, B., Pelicon, P., Petersson, P., Piip, K., Pintsuk, G., Pompilian, G. O., Popa, G., Porosnicu, C., Primc, G., Probst, M., Räisänen, J., Rasinski, M., Ratynskaia, S., Reiser, D., Ricci, D., Richou, M., Riesch, J., Riva, G., Rosinski, M., Roubin, P., Rubel, M., Ruset, C., Safi, E., Sergienko, G., Siketic, Z., Sima, A., Spilker, B., Stadlmayr, R., Steudel, I., Ström, P., Tadic, T., Tafalla, D., Tale, I., Terentyev, D., Terra, A., Tiron, V., Tiseanu, I., Tolias, P., Tskhakaya, D., Uccello, A., Unterberg, B., Uytdenhoven, I., Vassallo, E., Vavpetič, P., Veis, P., Velicu, I. L., Vernimmen, J. W. M., Voitkans, A., von Toussaint, U., Weckmann, A., Wirtz, M., Založnik, A., and Zaplotnik, R. Wed . "Plasma–wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa796e. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1394582.
@article{osti_1394582,
title = {Plasma–wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification},
author = {Brezinsek, S. and Coenen, J. W. and Schwarz-Selinger, T. and Schmid, K. and Kirschner, A. and Hakola, A. and Tabares, F. L. and van der Meiden, H. J. and Mayoral, M. -L. and Reinhart, M. and Tsitrone, E. and Ahlgren, T. and Aints, M. and Airila, M. and Almaviva, S. and Alves, E. and Angot, T. and Anita, V. and Arredondo Parra, R. and Aumayr, F. and Balden, M. and Bauer, J. and Ben Yaala, M. and Berger, B. M. and Bisson, R. and Björkas, C. and Bogdanovic Radovic, I. and Borodin, D. and Bucalossi, J. and Butikova, J. and Butoi, B. and Čadež, I. and Caniello, R. and Caneve, L. and Cartry, G. and Catarino, N. and Čekada, M. and Ciraolo, G. and Ciupinski, L. and Colao, F. and Corre, Y. and Costin, C. and Craciunescu, T. and Cremona, A. and De Angeli, M. and de Castro, A. and Dejarnac, R. and Dellasega, D. and Dinca, P. and Dittmar, T. and Dobrea, C. and Hansen, P. and Drenik, A. and Eich, T. and Elgeti, S. and Falie, D. and Fedorczak, N. and Ferro, Y. and Fornal, T. and Fortuna-Zalesna, E. and Gao, L. and Gasior, P. and Gherendi, M. and Ghezzi, F. and Gosar, Ž. and Greuner, H. and Grigore, E. and Grisolia, C. and Groth, M. and Gruca, M. and Grzonka, J. and Gunn, J. P. and Hassouni, K. and Heinola, K. and Höschen, T. and Huber, S. and Jacob, W. and Jepu, I. and Jiang, X. and Jogi, I. and Kaiser, A. and Karhunen, J. and Kelemen, M. and Köppen, M. and Koslowski, H. R. and Kreter, A. and Kubkowska, M. and Laan, M. and Laguardia, L. and Lahtinen, A. and Lasa, A. and Lazic, V. and Lemahieu, N. and Likonen, J. and Linke, J. and Litnovsky, A. and Linsmeier, Ch. and Loewenhoff, T. and Lungu, C. and Lungu, M. and Maddaluno, G. and Maier, H. and Makkonen, T. and Manhard, A. and Marandet, Y. and Markelj, S. and Marot, L. and Martin, C. and Martin-Rojo, A. B. and Martynova, Y. and Mateus, R. and Matveev, D. and Mayer, M. and Meisl, G. and Mellet, N. and Michau, A. and Miettunen, J. and Möller, S. and Morgan, T. W. and Mougenot, J. and Mozetič, M. and Nemanič, V. and Neu, R. and Nordlund, K. and Oberkofler, M. and Oyarzabal, E. and Panjan, M. and Pardanaud, C. and Paris, P. and Passoni, M. and Pegourie, B. and Pelicon, P. and Petersson, P. and Piip, K. and Pintsuk, G. and Pompilian, G. O. and Popa, G. and Porosnicu, C. and Primc, G. and Probst, M. and Räisänen, J. and Rasinski, M. and Ratynskaia, S. and Reiser, D. and Ricci, D. and Richou, M. and Riesch, J. and Riva, G. and Rosinski, M. and Roubin, P. and Rubel, M. and Ruset, C. and Safi, E. and Sergienko, G. and Siketic, Z. and Sima, A. and Spilker, B. and Stadlmayr, R. and Steudel, I. and Ström, P. and Tadic, T. and Tafalla, D. and Tale, I. and Terentyev, D. and Terra, A. and Tiron, V. and Tiseanu, I. and Tolias, P. and Tskhakaya, D. and Uccello, A. and Unterberg, B. and Uytdenhoven, I. and Vassallo, E. and Vavpetič, P. and Veis, P. and Velicu, I. L. and Vernimmen, J. W. M. and Voitkans, A. and von Toussaint, U. and Weckmann, A. and Wirtz, M. and Založnik, A. and Zaplotnik, R.},
abstractNote = {The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma–material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested in the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W surface and a potential first-wall solution for DEMO.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/aa796e},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = 11,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Jun 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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