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Title: Development of the IBSAL-SimMOpt Method for the Optimization of Quality in a Corn Stover Supply Chain

Abstract

Variability on the physical characteristics of feedstock has a relevant effect on the reactor’s reliability and operating cost. Most of the models developed to optimize biomass supply chains have failed to quantify the effect of biomass quality and preprocessing operations required to meet biomass specifications on overall cost and performance. The Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) model estimates the harvesting, collection, transportation, and storage cost while considering the stochastic behavior of the field-to-biorefinery supply chain. This paper proposes an IBSAL-SimMOpt (Simulation-based Multi-Objective Optimization) method for optimizing the biomass quality and costs associated with the efforts needed to meet conversion technology specifications. The method is developed in two phases. For the first phase, a SimMOpt tool that interacts with the extended IBSAL is developed. For the second phase, the baseline IBSAL model is extended so that the cost for meeting and/or penalization for failing in meeting specifications are considered. The IBSAL-SimMOpt method is designed to optimize quality characteristics of biomass, cost related to activities intended to improve the quality of feedstock, and the penalization cost. A case study based on 1916 farms in Ontario, Canada is considered for testing the proposed method. Analysis of the results demonstrates that thismore » method is able to find a high-quality set of non-dominated solutions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1394569
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energies (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energies (Basel); Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS

Citation Formats

Chavez, Hernan, Castillo-Villar, Krystel, and Webb, Erin. Development of the IBSAL-SimMOpt Method for the Optimization of Quality in a Corn Stover Supply Chain. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3390/en10081137.
Chavez, Hernan, Castillo-Villar, Krystel, & Webb, Erin. Development of the IBSAL-SimMOpt Method for the Optimization of Quality in a Corn Stover Supply Chain. United States. doi:10.3390/en10081137.
Chavez, Hernan, Castillo-Villar, Krystel, and Webb, Erin. 2017. "Development of the IBSAL-SimMOpt Method for the Optimization of Quality in a Corn Stover Supply Chain". United States. doi:10.3390/en10081137. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1394569.
@article{osti_1394569,
title = {Development of the IBSAL-SimMOpt Method for the Optimization of Quality in a Corn Stover Supply Chain},
author = {Chavez, Hernan and Castillo-Villar, Krystel and Webb, Erin},
abstractNote = {Variability on the physical characteristics of feedstock has a relevant effect on the reactor’s reliability and operating cost. Most of the models developed to optimize biomass supply chains have failed to quantify the effect of biomass quality and preprocessing operations required to meet biomass specifications on overall cost and performance. The Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) model estimates the harvesting, collection, transportation, and storage cost while considering the stochastic behavior of the field-to-biorefinery supply chain. This paper proposes an IBSAL-SimMOpt (Simulation-based Multi-Objective Optimization) method for optimizing the biomass quality and costs associated with the efforts needed to meet conversion technology specifications. The method is developed in two phases. For the first phase, a SimMOpt tool that interacts with the extended IBSAL is developed. For the second phase, the baseline IBSAL model is extended so that the cost for meeting and/or penalization for failing in meeting specifications are considered. The IBSAL-SimMOpt method is designed to optimize quality characteristics of biomass, cost related to activities intended to improve the quality of feedstock, and the penalization cost. A case study based on 1916 farms in Ontario, Canada is considered for testing the proposed method. Analysis of the results demonstrates that this method is able to find a high-quality set of non-dominated solutions.},
doi = {10.3390/en10081137},
journal = {Energies (Basel)},
number = 8,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
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  • Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales,more » dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.« less
  • This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost,more » but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.« less
  • The production of biofuels using second-generation feedstocks has been recognized as an important alternative source of sustainable energy and its demand is expected to increase due to regulations such as the Renewable Fuel Standard. However, the pathway to biofuel industry maturity faces unique, unaddressed challenges. Here, to address this challenges, this article presents an optimization model which quantifies and controls the impact of biomass quality variability on supply chain related decisions and technology selection. We propose a two-stage stochastic programming model and associated efficient solution procedures for solving large-scale problems to (1) better represent the random nature of the biomassmore » quality (defined by moisture and ash contents) in supply chain modeling, and (2) assess the impact of these uncertainties on the supply chain design and planning. The proposed model is then applied to a case study in the state of Tennessee. Results show that high moisture and ash contents negatively impact the unit delivery cost since poor biomass quality requires the addition of quality control activities. Experimental results indicate that supply chain cost could increase as much as 27%–31% when biomass quality is poor. We assess the impact of the biomass quality on the topological supply chain. Our case study indicates that biomass quality impacts supply chain costs; thus, it is important to consider the impact of biomass quality in supply chain design and management decisions.« less
  • Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable energy resources for energy production. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for ground lignocellulosic biomass like corn stover limit its operation for energy purposes. The common drawbacks are inefficient transportation, a bigger storage foot print, and handling problems. Densification of biomass using pellet mill helps to overcome these limitations. This study helps to understand the effect of binder on high moisture biomass with a focus on the quality (density and durability), the pelleting efficiency and the specific energy consumption of its pelleting process. Raw corn stover was pelleted at high moisture ofmore » 33% (w.b.) at both varying preheating temperatures and binder percentage. The die speed of the pellet mill was set at 60Hz. The pellets produced were analyzed and showed higher moisture content. They were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70°C for 3-4 hr bringing the pellet moisture to <9%. The dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties like unit, bulk and tapped density, and durability. Furthermore, the results indicated increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved the physical properties of the pellets and reduced the specific energy consumption. Higher binder addition of 4% reduced the feedstock moisture loss during pelleting to <4%, which can be due reduced residence time of the material in the die. On the other hand the physical properties like density and durability improved significantly with binder addition. At 4% binder and 33% feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed were >510 kg/m3 and >98% and the percent fines generation has reduced to <3%. Also at these conditions the specific energy consumption was reduced by about 30-40% compared no binder pelleting test.« less
  • This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively,more » for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.« less