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Title: Allelopathic effects of exogenous phenylalanine: a comparison of four monocot species

Abstract

Isotopic labeling of biomolecules through biosynthesis from deuterated precursors has successfully been employed for both structural studies and metabolic analysis. Phenylalanine is the precursor of many products synthesized by plants, including the monolignols used for synthesis of lignin. Possible allelochemical effects of phenylalanine have not been reported, although its deamination product cinnamic acid is known to have deleterious effects on root elongation and growth of several plant species. In this work, the effects of phenylalanine and its deuterated analog phenylalanine-d8 added to growth media were studied for annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), winter grain rye (Secale cereale), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cultivated under hydroponic conditions. Growth of annual ryegrass was inhibited by phenylalanine while switchgrass and rye were not significantly affected. Growth was less affected by deuterated phenylalanine-d8 than by its protiated counterpart, which may be a typical deuterium kinetic isotope effect resulting in slower enzymatic reaction rates. Deuterium incorporation levels of 2-3% were achieved in biomass of switchgrass and annual ryegrass. Both protiated and deuterated phenylalanine were moderately toxic (IC25 values 0.6 and 0.8 mM, respectively) to duckweed (Lemna minor) grown using a 12 h diurnal cycle under photoautotrophic conditions. A significant increase in toxicity, greater for the deuterated form,more » was noted when duckweed was grown under higher intensity, full spectrum illumination with a metal halide lamp compared to fluorescent plant growth lamps emitting in the blue and red spectral regions. Lastly, supplementation with glucose increased toxicity of phenylalanine consistent with synergy between hexose and amino acid uptake that has been reported for duckweed.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [6];  [6];  [6];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [7];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division
  2. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Institute of Paper Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry
  3. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Institute of Paper Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, TN (United States). Department of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries, Center for Renewable Carbon; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biology and Soft Matter Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biology and Soft Matter Division
  6. Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Siemens Teachers As Research Scientists (STARS) High School Science Teacher Summer Research Experience Program
  7. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Participants in Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) High School Science Teacher Summer Research Experience Program
  8. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1394307
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Planta
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 246; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0032-0935
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; Phenylalanine; Allelopathy; Deuterium; Switchgrass; Ryegrass; Lemna

Citation Formats

Evans, Barbara R., Bali, Garima, Ragauskas, Art J., Shah, Riddhi, O’Neill, Hugh, Howard, Cory A., Lavenhouse, Fayola, Ramirez, Dawn, Weston, Kelly M., Ramey, Kelly R., Cangemi, Valerie A., Kinney, Brian M., Partee, Claudia A., Ware, Teresa W., and Davison, Brian H. Allelopathic effects of exogenous phenylalanine: a comparison of four monocot species. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s00425-017-2720-x.
Evans, Barbara R., Bali, Garima, Ragauskas, Art J., Shah, Riddhi, O’Neill, Hugh, Howard, Cory A., Lavenhouse, Fayola, Ramirez, Dawn, Weston, Kelly M., Ramey, Kelly R., Cangemi, Valerie A., Kinney, Brian M., Partee, Claudia A., Ware, Teresa W., & Davison, Brian H. Allelopathic effects of exogenous phenylalanine: a comparison of four monocot species. United States. doi:10.1007/s00425-017-2720-x.
Evans, Barbara R., Bali, Garima, Ragauskas, Art J., Shah, Riddhi, O’Neill, Hugh, Howard, Cory A., Lavenhouse, Fayola, Ramirez, Dawn, Weston, Kelly M., Ramey, Kelly R., Cangemi, Valerie A., Kinney, Brian M., Partee, Claudia A., Ware, Teresa W., and Davison, Brian H. Mon . "Allelopathic effects of exogenous phenylalanine: a comparison of four monocot species". United States. doi:10.1007/s00425-017-2720-x.
@article{osti_1394307,
title = {Allelopathic effects of exogenous phenylalanine: a comparison of four monocot species},
author = {Evans, Barbara R. and Bali, Garima and Ragauskas, Art J. and Shah, Riddhi and O’Neill, Hugh and Howard, Cory A. and Lavenhouse, Fayola and Ramirez, Dawn and Weston, Kelly M. and Ramey, Kelly R. and Cangemi, Valerie A. and Kinney, Brian M. and Partee, Claudia A. and Ware, Teresa W. and Davison, Brian H.},
abstractNote = {Isotopic labeling of biomolecules through biosynthesis from deuterated precursors has successfully been employed for both structural studies and metabolic analysis. Phenylalanine is the precursor of many products synthesized by plants, including the monolignols used for synthesis of lignin. Possible allelochemical effects of phenylalanine have not been reported, although its deamination product cinnamic acid is known to have deleterious effects on root elongation and growth of several plant species. In this work, the effects of phenylalanine and its deuterated analog phenylalanine-d8 added to growth media were studied for annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), winter grain rye (Secale cereale), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cultivated under hydroponic conditions. Growth of annual ryegrass was inhibited by phenylalanine while switchgrass and rye were not significantly affected. Growth was less affected by deuterated phenylalanine-d8 than by its protiated counterpart, which may be a typical deuterium kinetic isotope effect resulting in slower enzymatic reaction rates. Deuterium incorporation levels of 2-3% were achieved in biomass of switchgrass and annual ryegrass. Both protiated and deuterated phenylalanine were moderately toxic (IC25 values 0.6 and 0.8 mM, respectively) to duckweed (Lemna minor) grown using a 12 h diurnal cycle under photoautotrophic conditions. A significant increase in toxicity, greater for the deuterated form, was noted when duckweed was grown under higher intensity, full spectrum illumination with a metal halide lamp compared to fluorescent plant growth lamps emitting in the blue and red spectral regions. Lastly, supplementation with glucose increased toxicity of phenylalanine consistent with synergy between hexose and amino acid uptake that has been reported for duckweed.},
doi = {10.1007/s00425-017-2720-x},
journal = {Planta},
issn = {0032-0935},
number = 4,
volume = 246,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}

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