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Title: Distinct nanoscale reaction pathways in a sulfide material for sodium and lithium batteries

Abstract

Sodium-ion batteries are attractive because of their potentially lower cost than lithium-ion systems. However, the larger ionic radius of Na + means that candidate electrode materials often undergo more substantial volumetric changes during reaction as compared to Li-ion batteries, and these changes must be understood and controlled for the development of electrode materials with long cycle life. Here, nanoscale-to-macroscale transformation pathways are investigated in real time in Cu 2S (a sulfide electrode material) during electrochemical reaction with Na and Li. In situ and ex situ X-ray diffraction reveal that the overall phase transformations in Cu 2S electrodes are similar within both Na and Li cells. However, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the nanoscale reaction pathways differ significantly, which likely contributes to observed differences in electrochemical behavior. In spite of these dissimilarities, Na/Cu 2S electrochemical cells are shown to exhibit excellent cycle life for the first time (negligible capacity decay over 400 cycles), which is similar to the Li case. Therefore, although the more substantial volume changes during the sodiation of Cu 2S induce a new reaction pathway, they do not cause accelerated capacity decay, as is commonly argued for Na-ion materials. These results suggest that other large-volume-changemore » electrode materials may also be engineered for long cycle life in next-generation Na-ion batteries.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]
  1. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science
  4. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1394189
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Boebinger, Matthew G., Xu, Michael, Ma, Xuetian, Chen, Hailong, Unocic, Raymond R., and McDowell, Matthew T. Distinct nanoscale reaction pathways in a sulfide material for sodium and lithium batteries. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1039/c6ta09195d.
Boebinger, Matthew G., Xu, Michael, Ma, Xuetian, Chen, Hailong, Unocic, Raymond R., & McDowell, Matthew T. Distinct nanoscale reaction pathways in a sulfide material for sodium and lithium batteries. United States. doi:10.1039/c6ta09195d.
Boebinger, Matthew G., Xu, Michael, Ma, Xuetian, Chen, Hailong, Unocic, Raymond R., and McDowell, Matthew T. Mon . "Distinct nanoscale reaction pathways in a sulfide material for sodium and lithium batteries". United States. doi:10.1039/c6ta09195d.
@article{osti_1394189,
title = {Distinct nanoscale reaction pathways in a sulfide material for sodium and lithium batteries},
author = {Boebinger, Matthew G. and Xu, Michael and Ma, Xuetian and Chen, Hailong and Unocic, Raymond R. and McDowell, Matthew T.},
abstractNote = {Sodium-ion batteries are attractive because of their potentially lower cost than lithium-ion systems. However, the larger ionic radius of Na+ means that candidate electrode materials often undergo more substantial volumetric changes during reaction as compared to Li-ion batteries, and these changes must be understood and controlled for the development of electrode materials with long cycle life. Here, nanoscale-to-macroscale transformation pathways are investigated in real time in Cu2S (a sulfide electrode material) during electrochemical reaction with Na and Li. In situ and ex situ X-ray diffraction reveal that the overall phase transformations in Cu2S electrodes are similar within both Na and Li cells. However, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the nanoscale reaction pathways differ significantly, which likely contributes to observed differences in electrochemical behavior. In spite of these dissimilarities, Na/Cu2S electrochemical cells are shown to exhibit excellent cycle life for the first time (negligible capacity decay over 400 cycles), which is similar to the Li case. Therefore, although the more substantial volume changes during the sodiation of Cu2S induce a new reaction pathway, they do not cause accelerated capacity decay, as is commonly argued for Na-ion materials. These results suggest that other large-volume-change electrode materials may also be engineered for long cycle life in next-generation Na-ion batteries.},
doi = {10.1039/c6ta09195d},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
issn = {2050-7488},
number = 23,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

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