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Title: Update on Geothermal Direct-Use Installations in the United States

Abstract

Direct-use of geothermal energy currently has limited penetration in the United States, with an estimated installed capacity of about 500 MWth, supplying on the order of 0.01% of the total annual U.S. heat demand (about 30 EJ). We see higher penetration levels in other countries such as Iceland (about 90%) and Hungary (2.5%). An updated database of geothermal direct-use systems in the U.S. has been compiled and analyzed, building upon the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) Geo-Heat Center direct-use database. Types of directuse applications examined include hot springs resorts and pools, aquaculture farms, greenhouses, and district heating systems, among others; power-generating facilities and ground-source heat pumps were excluded. Where possible, the current operation status, open and close dates, well data, and other technical data were obtained for each entry. The database contains 545 installations, of which 407 are open, 108 are closed, and 30 have an unknown status. Spas are the most common type of installation, accounting for 50% of installations by number. Aquaculture installations (46 out of 407 open installations) account for the largest percentage (26%) of installed capacity in operation (129 MWth out of 501 MWth). Historical deployment curves show the installed capacity significantly increased in the 1970smore » and 1980s mainly due to development of geothermal district heating, aquaculture, and greenhouse systems. Since the 2000s, geothermal direct-use development appears to have slowed, and the number of sites in operation decreased due to closures. Case studies reveal multiple barriers to geothermal direct-use implementation and operation, including 1) existence of an information gap among stakeholders, developers, and the general public, 2) competition from cheap natural gas, and 3) the family-owned, small-scale nature of businesses might result in discontinuation among generations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Georgia State University
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Office (EE-4G)
OSTI Identifier:
1394114
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5500-67865
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the 42nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, 13-15 February 2017, Stanford University, Stanford, California
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; direct-use; geothermal; installations; market; barriers

Citation Formats

Beckers, Koenraad J, Young, Katherine R, and Snyder, Diana M. Update on Geothermal Direct-Use Installations in the United States. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Beckers, Koenraad J, Young, Katherine R, & Snyder, Diana M. Update on Geothermal Direct-Use Installations in the United States. United States.
Beckers, Koenraad J, Young, Katherine R, and Snyder, Diana M. Wed . "Update on Geothermal Direct-Use Installations in the United States". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1394114,
title = {Update on Geothermal Direct-Use Installations in the United States},
author = {Beckers, Koenraad J and Young, Katherine R and Snyder, Diana M.},
abstractNote = {Direct-use of geothermal energy currently has limited penetration in the United States, with an estimated installed capacity of about 500 MWth, supplying on the order of 0.01% of the total annual U.S. heat demand (about 30 EJ). We see higher penetration levels in other countries such as Iceland (about 90%) and Hungary (2.5%). An updated database of geothermal direct-use systems in the U.S. has been compiled and analyzed, building upon the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) Geo-Heat Center direct-use database. Types of directuse applications examined include hot springs resorts and pools, aquaculture farms, greenhouses, and district heating systems, among others; power-generating facilities and ground-source heat pumps were excluded. Where possible, the current operation status, open and close dates, well data, and other technical data were obtained for each entry. The database contains 545 installations, of which 407 are open, 108 are closed, and 30 have an unknown status. Spas are the most common type of installation, accounting for 50% of installations by number. Aquaculture installations (46 out of 407 open installations) account for the largest percentage (26%) of installed capacity in operation (129 MWth out of 501 MWth). Historical deployment curves show the installed capacity significantly increased in the 1970s and 1980s mainly due to development of geothermal district heating, aquaculture, and greenhouse systems. Since the 2000s, geothermal direct-use development appears to have slowed, and the number of sites in operation decreased due to closures. Case studies reveal multiple barriers to geothermal direct-use implementation and operation, including 1) existence of an information gap among stakeholders, developers, and the general public, 2) competition from cheap natural gas, and 3) the family-owned, small-scale nature of businesses might result in discontinuation among generations.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Conference:
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