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Title: Final Report for DE-SC0008059

Abstract

Graphene, a one-atom thick material comprising hexagonally bonded carbon atoms, is one of the strongest materials known and is impermeable to even helium gas. The potential for creation of tunable nanometer-scale pores in graphene, combined with mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and atomic thickness, make it a promising material for improving selectivity, permeability, and energy efficiency in a diverse range of membrane separations. However, fundamental understanding of creation of porous graphene, its mass transport properties, and the relationship between porosity and membrane performance is lacking. This project studied methods to create pores in graphene by ion irradiation and etching, and investigated the effect of the porosity of graphene on mass transport properties at the membrane level as well as across individual pores. Detailed characterization of pore size distributions in graphene using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy was performed to elucidate the relationship between different pore creation processes and the resulting porosity. New methods to create tunable nanometer-scale pores in graphene at high density over large areas were developed. Graphene membranes were fabricated comprising single-layer porous graphene on appropriate support membranes. Mass transport of ions, molecules, water, and gases across the membranes was investigated, and predictive models were developed to relate themore » graphene porosity and support membrane structure to the mass transport properties of the membranes. The effect of graphene porosity on permeance of the membranes to water, salts, and small molecules was experimentally quantified. Single-pore measurements were performed and a model was developed to understand ion transport across graphene pores, which led to the experimental observation of heterogeneity in transport behaviors and spontaneous fluctuations of ion transport. Functional single-layer nanoporous graphene membranes comprising a high density of pores over macro-scale areas with molecular selectivity were demonstrated for the first time. This project led to three patent applications and 9 journal articles. The fundamental developments in understanding nanoporous graphene membranes have laid the foundations to develop energy-efficient nanoporous graphene membranes for various applications in water desalination, oil and natural gas separations, biotechnology, and chemical processing.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1394109
Report Number(s):
DOE-MIT-DE-SC0008059
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0008059
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Graphene; membrane; desalination; separation; nanopore

Citation Formats

Karnik, Rohit. Final Report for DE-SC0008059. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1394109.
Karnik, Rohit. Final Report for DE-SC0008059. United States. doi:10.2172/1394109.
Karnik, Rohit. Sun . "Final Report for DE-SC0008059". United States. doi:10.2172/1394109. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1394109.
@article{osti_1394109,
title = {Final Report for DE-SC0008059},
author = {Karnik, Rohit},
abstractNote = {Graphene, a one-atom thick material comprising hexagonally bonded carbon atoms, is one of the strongest materials known and is impermeable to even helium gas. The potential for creation of tunable nanometer-scale pores in graphene, combined with mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and atomic thickness, make it a promising material for improving selectivity, permeability, and energy efficiency in a diverse range of membrane separations. However, fundamental understanding of creation of porous graphene, its mass transport properties, and the relationship between porosity and membrane performance is lacking. This project studied methods to create pores in graphene by ion irradiation and etching, and investigated the effect of the porosity of graphene on mass transport properties at the membrane level as well as across individual pores. Detailed characterization of pore size distributions in graphene using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy was performed to elucidate the relationship between different pore creation processes and the resulting porosity. New methods to create tunable nanometer-scale pores in graphene at high density over large areas were developed. Graphene membranes were fabricated comprising single-layer porous graphene on appropriate support membranes. Mass transport of ions, molecules, water, and gases across the membranes was investigated, and predictive models were developed to relate the graphene porosity and support membrane structure to the mass transport properties of the membranes. The effect of graphene porosity on permeance of the membranes to water, salts, and small molecules was experimentally quantified. Single-pore measurements were performed and a model was developed to understand ion transport across graphene pores, which led to the experimental observation of heterogeneity in transport behaviors and spontaneous fluctuations of ion transport. Functional single-layer nanoporous graphene membranes comprising a high density of pores over macro-scale areas with molecular selectivity were demonstrated for the first time. This project led to three patent applications and 9 journal articles. The fundamental developments in understanding nanoporous graphene membranes have laid the foundations to develop energy-efficient nanoporous graphene membranes for various applications in water desalination, oil and natural gas separations, biotechnology, and chemical processing.},
doi = {10.2172/1394109},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Sep 24 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sun Sep 24 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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