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Title: Efficient laser-driven proton acceleration from cylindrical and planar cryogenic hydrogen jets

Abstract

We report on recent experimental results deploying a continuous cryogenic hydrogen jet as a debris-free, renewable laser-driven source of pure proton beams generated at the 150 TW ultrashort pulse laser Draco. Efficient proton acceleration reaching cut-off energies of up to 20 MeV with particle numbers exceeding 109 particles per MeV per steradian is demonstrated, showing for the first time that the acceleration performance is comparable to solid foil targets with thicknesses in the micrometer range. Two different target geometries are presented and their proton beam deliverance characterized: cylindrical (Ø 5 μm) and planar (20 μm × 2 μm). In both cases typical Target Normal Sheath Acceleration emission patterns with exponential proton energy spectra are detected. Significantly higher proton numbers in laser-forward direction are observed when deploying the planar jet as compared to the cylindrical jet case. As a result, this is confirmed by two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (2D3V PIC) simulations, which demonstrate that the planar jet proves favorable as its geometry leads to more optimized acceleration conditions.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [6];  [1];  [7];  [5];  [1];  [1] more »;  [3];  [1];  [5];  [8]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [7];  [7];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [5];  [1] « less
  1. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)
  2. European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld (Germany); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden, Dresden (Germany)
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  6. Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology e.V., Jena (Germany)
  7. Univ. Rostock, Rostock (Germany)
  8. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena, Jena (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1394087
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Laser-produced plasmas; Plasma-based accelerators

Citation Formats

Obst, Lieselotte, Gode, Sebastian, Rehwald, Martin, Brack, Florian -Emanuel, Branco, Joao, Bock, Stefan, Bussmann, Michael, Cowan, Thomas E., Curry, Chandra B., Fiuza, Frederico, Gauthier, Maxence, Gebhardt, Rene, Helbig, Uwe, Huebl, Axel, Hubner, Uwe, Irman, Arie, Kazak, Lev, Kim, Jongjin B., Kluge, Thomas, Kraft, Stephan, Loeser, Markus, Metzkes, Josefine, Mishra, Rohini, Rodel, Christian, Schlenvoigt, Hans -Peter, Siebold, Mathias, Tiggesbaumker, Josef, Wolter, Steffen, Ziegler, Tim, Schramm, Ulrich, Glenzer, Siegfried H., and Zeil, Karl. Efficient laser-driven proton acceleration from cylindrical and planar cryogenic hydrogen jets. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10589-3.
Obst, Lieselotte, Gode, Sebastian, Rehwald, Martin, Brack, Florian -Emanuel, Branco, Joao, Bock, Stefan, Bussmann, Michael, Cowan, Thomas E., Curry, Chandra B., Fiuza, Frederico, Gauthier, Maxence, Gebhardt, Rene, Helbig, Uwe, Huebl, Axel, Hubner, Uwe, Irman, Arie, Kazak, Lev, Kim, Jongjin B., Kluge, Thomas, Kraft, Stephan, Loeser, Markus, Metzkes, Josefine, Mishra, Rohini, Rodel, Christian, Schlenvoigt, Hans -Peter, Siebold, Mathias, Tiggesbaumker, Josef, Wolter, Steffen, Ziegler, Tim, Schramm, Ulrich, Glenzer, Siegfried H., & Zeil, Karl. Efficient laser-driven proton acceleration from cylindrical and planar cryogenic hydrogen jets. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10589-3.
Obst, Lieselotte, Gode, Sebastian, Rehwald, Martin, Brack, Florian -Emanuel, Branco, Joao, Bock, Stefan, Bussmann, Michael, Cowan, Thomas E., Curry, Chandra B., Fiuza, Frederico, Gauthier, Maxence, Gebhardt, Rene, Helbig, Uwe, Huebl, Axel, Hubner, Uwe, Irman, Arie, Kazak, Lev, Kim, Jongjin B., Kluge, Thomas, Kraft, Stephan, Loeser, Markus, Metzkes, Josefine, Mishra, Rohini, Rodel, Christian, Schlenvoigt, Hans -Peter, Siebold, Mathias, Tiggesbaumker, Josef, Wolter, Steffen, Ziegler, Tim, Schramm, Ulrich, Glenzer, Siegfried H., and Zeil, Karl. 2017. "Efficient laser-driven proton acceleration from cylindrical and planar cryogenic hydrogen jets". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10589-3. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1394087.
@article{osti_1394087,
title = {Efficient laser-driven proton acceleration from cylindrical and planar cryogenic hydrogen jets},
author = {Obst, Lieselotte and Gode, Sebastian and Rehwald, Martin and Brack, Florian -Emanuel and Branco, Joao and Bock, Stefan and Bussmann, Michael and Cowan, Thomas E. and Curry, Chandra B. and Fiuza, Frederico and Gauthier, Maxence and Gebhardt, Rene and Helbig, Uwe and Huebl, Axel and Hubner, Uwe and Irman, Arie and Kazak, Lev and Kim, Jongjin B. and Kluge, Thomas and Kraft, Stephan and Loeser, Markus and Metzkes, Josefine and Mishra, Rohini and Rodel, Christian and Schlenvoigt, Hans -Peter and Siebold, Mathias and Tiggesbaumker, Josef and Wolter, Steffen and Ziegler, Tim and Schramm, Ulrich and Glenzer, Siegfried H. and Zeil, Karl},
abstractNote = {We report on recent experimental results deploying a continuous cryogenic hydrogen jet as a debris-free, renewable laser-driven source of pure proton beams generated at the 150 TW ultrashort pulse laser Draco. Efficient proton acceleration reaching cut-off energies of up to 20 MeV with particle numbers exceeding 109 particles per MeV per steradian is demonstrated, showing for the first time that the acceleration performance is comparable to solid foil targets with thicknesses in the micrometer range. Two different target geometries are presented and their proton beam deliverance characterized: cylindrical (Ø 5 μm) and planar (20 μm × 2 μm). In both cases typical Target Normal Sheath Acceleration emission patterns with exponential proton energy spectra are detected. Significantly higher proton numbers in laser-forward direction are observed when deploying the planar jet as compared to the cylindrical jet case. As a result, this is confirmed by two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (2D3V PIC) simulations, which demonstrate that the planar jet proves favorable as its geometry leads to more optimized acceleration conditions.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-10589-3},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}

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  • Laser driven proton acceleration experiments from micron and submicron thick targets using high intensity (2 × 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}), high contrast (10{sup −15}) laser pulses show an enhancement of maximum energy when hydrogen containing targets were used instead of non-hydrogen containing. In our experiments, using thin (<1μm) plastic foil targets resulted in maximum proton energies that were consistently 20%–100% higher than when equivalent thickness inorganic targets, including Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Al, were used. Proton energies up to 20 MeV were measured with a flux of 10{sup 7} protons/MeV/sr.
  • An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC.more » On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.« less
  • Efficient proton acceleration by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pulse with a solid foil has been demonstrated. An aluminum coating (thickness: 0.2 {mu}m) on a polyethylene (PE) foil was irradiated at 2 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} intensity. The protons from the aluminum-disk (diameter: 150 {mu}m to 15 mm) foil were accelerated to much higher energy in comparison with conventional targets such as PE and aluminum-coated PE foils. The fast electron signal along the foil surface was significantly higher from the aluminum-coated PE foil. The laser-proton acceleration appeared to be affected to the size of surrounding conductive material.
  • A previous model (Phys. Fluids 31, 658 (1988)) has been generalized and modified to describe ion beam interaction with planar foils in which the energy absorption region is composed of two materials. The model provides a unified description of foils with thicknesses larger and smaller than the ion range (super-range and subrange foils). The hydrodynamic efficiency of the unheated part of the foil, the payload, is studied for different foil structures and a set of parameters that determine the dynamics of the interaction is found.