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Title: Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.

Abstract

This report documents the key findings from the Reservoir Maintenance and Development (RM&D) Task of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study had the objective of conducting analyses of future geothermal growth based on sets of current and future geothermal technology developments. The RM&D Task is one of seven tasks within the GeoVision Study with the others being, Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Institutional Market Barriers, Environmental and Social Impacts, Thermal Applications, and Hybrid Systems. The full set of findings and the details of the GeoVision Study can be found in the final GeoVision Study report on the DOE-GTO website. As applied here, RM&D refers to the activities associated with developing, exploiting, and maintaining a known geothermal resource. It assumes that the site has already been vetted and that the resource has been evaluated to be of sufficient quality to move towards full-scale development. It also assumes that the resource is to be developed for power generation, as opposed to low-temperature or direct use applications. This document presents the key factors influencing RM&D from both a technological and operational standpoint and provides a baseline of its current state.more » It also looks forward to describe areas of research and development that must be pursued if the development geothermal energy is to reach its full potential.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program (EE-2C)
OSTI Identifier:
1394062
Report Number(s):
SAND2017-9977
657018
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

Citation Formats

Lowry, Thomas Stephen, Finger, John T., Carrigan, Charles R., Foris, Adam, Kennedy, Mack B., Corbet, Thomas F., Doughty, Christine A., Pye, Steven, and Sonnenthal, Eric L. Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1394062.
Lowry, Thomas Stephen, Finger, John T., Carrigan, Charles R., Foris, Adam, Kennedy, Mack B., Corbet, Thomas F., Doughty, Christine A., Pye, Steven, & Sonnenthal, Eric L. Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.. United States. doi:10.2172/1394062.
Lowry, Thomas Stephen, Finger, John T., Carrigan, Charles R., Foris, Adam, Kennedy, Mack B., Corbet, Thomas F., Doughty, Christine A., Pye, Steven, and Sonnenthal, Eric L. 2017. "Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.". United States. doi:10.2172/1394062. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1394062.
@article{osti_1394062,
title = {Reservoir Maintenance and Development Task Report for the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office GeoVision Study.},
author = {Lowry, Thomas Stephen and Finger, John T. and Carrigan, Charles R. and Foris, Adam and Kennedy, Mack B. and Corbet, Thomas F. and Doughty, Christine A. and Pye, Steven and Sonnenthal, Eric L.},
abstractNote = {This report documents the key findings from the Reservoir Maintenance and Development (RM&D) Task of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) Geothermal Vision Study (GeoVision Study). The GeoVision Study had the objective of conducting analyses of future geothermal growth based on sets of current and future geothermal technology developments. The RM&D Task is one of seven tasks within the GeoVision Study with the others being, Exploration and Confirmation, Potential to Penetration, Institutional Market Barriers, Environmental and Social Impacts, Thermal Applications, and Hybrid Systems. The full set of findings and the details of the GeoVision Study can be found in the final GeoVision Study report on the DOE-GTO website. As applied here, RM&D refers to the activities associated with developing, exploiting, and maintaining a known geothermal resource. It assumes that the site has already been vetted and that the resource has been evaluated to be of sufficient quality to move towards full-scale development. It also assumes that the resource is to be developed for power generation, as opposed to low-temperature or direct use applications. This document presents the key factors influencing RM&D from both a technological and operational standpoint and provides a baseline of its current state. It also looks forward to describe areas of research and development that must be pursued if the development geothermal energy is to reach its full potential.},
doi = {10.2172/1394062},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulationmore » capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems involved two phases of research, stimulation, development, and circulation in two separate reservoirs. The challenge problems had specific questions to be answered via numerical simulation in three topical areas: 1) reservoir creation/stimulation, 2) reactive and passive transport, and 3) thermal recovery. Whereas the benchmark class of problems were designed to test capabilities for modeling coupled processes under strictly specified conditions, the stated objective for the challenge class of problems was to demonstrate what new understanding of the Fenton Hill experiments could be realized via the application of modern numerical simulation tools by recognized expert practitioners.« less
  • Base gas requirements in the U.S. amount to a few trillion cubic feet. The Gas Research Institute has proposed a gas storage operating plan whereby an inert gas or a low BTU gas could be injected to replace part of the hydrocarbon gas. A reservoir simulator has been developed, enhanced and tested to solve gas-water reservoir problems where the gas may be treated as a two-component miscible mixture. The previously developed reservoir simulator was further enhanced to include a local grid refinement option, which allows the engineer to study a portion of the field in more detail compared to themore » rest of the field. The simulator was tested for correctness and completeness. A simulation study was conducted for the Hanson Field Gas Storage Reservoir using two models with different layering. The reservoir history matching was duplicated and several prediction cases were run to study the effectiveness of the replacement of base gas with an inert gas. The results show that replacement of a portion of the hydrocarbon base gas with an inert gas can be an attractive alternative for the gas storage industry.« less
  • The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project has prepared a two-year program to develop and field test methods of stimulating geothermal wells. The program provides for six field experiments which progress in difficulty from low temperature reservoirs using current technology to high temperature reservoirs using advanced types of stimulation treatments. The process used to select the six field experiment locations and stimulation treatments is described. Tentatively, the following reservoirs are proposed: Raft River, East Mesa, Baca and Westmorland (two experiments), and Brawley and The Geysers or Roosevelt Hot Springs (two experiments). The program will be reviewed after each field treatment tomore » select a specific well candidate for the next experiment and to determine whether alteration of the sequence will be beneficial to the overall success of the project and the geothermal industry.« less
  • The Hay Group, in consultation with Arawak Consulting Corporation, evaluated the current headquarters organization structure of the Department of Energy's Office of State and Local Assistance Programs (OSLAP) to measure its suitability to most effectively support OSLAP's present and changing responsibilities in federal energy conservation activities. The study carefully examined OSLAP's history and legislative mandate in federal energy program management, the levels of program funding and staffing, and the program's strategic objectives for the present and future. The principal analytic focus was upon the current OSLAP organization structure, and the consultants employed proprietary Hay job measurement technology and several, separatemore » but related, diagnostic tools which have been developed through extensive experience with clients in the public and private sectors.« less
  • The primary objective of this project was to improve our ability to predict performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir over time by relating, in a quantitative manner, microseismic imaging with fluid and temperature changes within the reservoir. Historically, microseismic data have been used qualitatively to place bounds on the growth of EGS reservoirs created by large hydraulic fracturing experiments. Previous investigators used an experimentally based fracture opening relationship (fracture aperture as a function of pressure), the spatial extent of microseismic events, and some assumptions about fracture frequency to determine the size of an EGS reservoir created during largemore » pumping tests. We addressed a number of issues (1) locating microearthquakes that occur during hydraulic fracturing, (2) obtaining more information about a reservoir than the microearthquake locations from the microearthquake data, for example, information about the seismic velocity structure of the reservoir or the scattering of seismic waves within the reservoir, (3) developing an improved methodology for estimating properties of fractures that intersect wellbores in a reservoir, and (4) developing a conceptual model for explaining the downward growth of observed seismicity that accompanies some hydraulic injections into geothermal reservoirs. We used two primary microseismic datasets for our work. The work was motivated by a dataset from the Salak Geothermal Field in Indonesia where seismicity accompanying a hydraulic injection was observed to migrate downward. We also used data from the Soultz EGS site in France. We also used Vertical Seismic Profiling data from a well in the United States. The work conducted is of benefit for characterizing reservoirs that are created by hydraulic fracturing for both EGS and for petroleum recovery.« less