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Title: Development of ITER non-activation phase operation scenarios

Abstract

Non-activation phase operations in ITER in hydrogen (H) and helium (He) will be important for commissioning of tokamak systems, such as diagnostics, heating and current drive (HCD) systems, coils and plasma control systems, and for validation of techniques necessary for establishing operations in DT. The assessment of feasible HCD schemes at various toroidal fields (2.65–5.3 T) has revealed that the previously applied assumptions need to be refined for the ITER non-activation phase H/He operations. A study of the ranges of plasma density and profile shape using the JINTRAC suite of codes has indicated that the hydrogen pellet fuelling into He plasmas should be utilized taking the optimization of IC power absorption, neutral beam shine-through density limit and H-mode access into account. The EPED1 estimation of the edge pedestal parameters has been extended to various H operation conditions, and the combined EPED1 and SOLPS estimation has provided guidance for modelling the edge pedestal in H/He operations. The availability of ITER HCD schemes, ranges of achievable plasma density and profile shape, and estimation of the edge pedestal parameters for H/He plasmas have been integrated into various time-dependent tokamak discharge simulations. In this paper, various H/He scenarios at a wide range of plasmamore » current (7.5–15 MA) and field (2.65–5.3 T) have been developed for the ITER non-activation phase operation, and the sensitivity of the developed scenarios to the used assumptions has been investigated to provide guidance for further development.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [1];  [2];  [5];  [1];  [6];  [7];  [4];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ITER Organization, St. Paul Lez Durance (France)
  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  3. TU Wien, Vienna (Austria)
  4. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
  5. Woodruff Scientific, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)
  6. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
  7. Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
ITER Organization, St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24); ITER Organization (France)
OSTI Identifier:
1393865
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-09CH11466; IO/RFQ/13/9550/JTR
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ITER; non-activation phase; scenario; simulation; model

Citation Formats

Kim, S. H., Poli, F. M., Koechl, F., Militello-Asp, E., Polevoi, A. R., Budny, R., Casper, T. A., Loarte, A., Luce, T. C., Na, Y. -S., Romanelli, M., Schneider, M., Snipes, J. A., and de Vries, P. C. Development of ITER non-activation phase operation scenarios. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa763e.
Kim, S. H., Poli, F. M., Koechl, F., Militello-Asp, E., Polevoi, A. R., Budny, R., Casper, T. A., Loarte, A., Luce, T. C., Na, Y. -S., Romanelli, M., Schneider, M., Snipes, J. A., & de Vries, P. C. Development of ITER non-activation phase operation scenarios. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa763e.
Kim, S. H., Poli, F. M., Koechl, F., Militello-Asp, E., Polevoi, A. R., Budny, R., Casper, T. A., Loarte, A., Luce, T. C., Na, Y. -S., Romanelli, M., Schneider, M., Snipes, J. A., and de Vries, P. C. 2017. "Development of ITER non-activation phase operation scenarios". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa763e.
@article{osti_1393865,
title = {Development of ITER non-activation phase operation scenarios},
author = {Kim, S. H. and Poli, F. M. and Koechl, F. and Militello-Asp, E. and Polevoi, A. R. and Budny, R. and Casper, T. A. and Loarte, A. and Luce, T. C. and Na, Y. -S. and Romanelli, M. and Schneider, M. and Snipes, J. A. and de Vries, P. C.},
abstractNote = {Non-activation phase operations in ITER in hydrogen (H) and helium (He) will be important for commissioning of tokamak systems, such as diagnostics, heating and current drive (HCD) systems, coils and plasma control systems, and for validation of techniques necessary for establishing operations in DT. The assessment of feasible HCD schemes at various toroidal fields (2.65–5.3 T) has revealed that the previously applied assumptions need to be refined for the ITER non-activation phase H/He operations. A study of the ranges of plasma density and profile shape using the JINTRAC suite of codes has indicated that the hydrogen pellet fuelling into He plasmas should be utilized taking the optimization of IC power absorption, neutral beam shine-through density limit and H-mode access into account. The EPED1 estimation of the edge pedestal parameters has been extended to various H operation conditions, and the combined EPED1 and SOLPS estimation has provided guidance for modelling the edge pedestal in H/He operations. The availability of ITER HCD schemes, ranges of achievable plasma density and profile shape, and estimation of the edge pedestal parameters for H/He plasmas have been integrated into various time-dependent tokamak discharge simulations. In this paper, various H/He scenarios at a wide range of plasma current (7.5–15 MA) and field (2.65–5.3 T) have been developed for the ITER non-activation phase operation, and the sensitivity of the developed scenarios to the used assumptions has been investigated to provide guidance for further development.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/aa763e},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = 8,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 6
}

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  • The improvement of LH coupling with local puffing of D2 gas, which made operation at ITER relevant distances (10 cm) and with ELMs a reality, has been extended to ITER- like plasma shapes with higher triangularity. With ICRF, we developed tools such as (1) localized direct electron heating using the 3He mode conversion scenario for electron heat transport studies (2) the production of 4He ions with energies in the MeV range by 3 {omega}c acceleration of beam injected ions at 120 keV to investigate Alfven instabilities and test {alpha} diagnostics (3) the stabilisation and destabilisation of sawteeth and (4) ICRFmore » as as a wall conditioning. Several ITER relevant scenarios were tested. The (3He)H minority heating scenario, considered for the non-activated start-up phase of ITER, produces at very low concentration energetic 3He which heat the electrons indirectly. For n3He/ne > 2%, the scenario transforms to a mode conversion scenario where the electrons are heated directly. The (D)H minority heating is not accessible as the concentration of C6+ dominates the wave propagation and always leads to mode conversion. The minority heating of T in D is very effective heating for ions and producing neutrons. New results were obtained in several areas of ICRF physics. Experimental evidence confirmed the theoretical prediction that, as the larmor radius increases beyond 0.5 times the perpendicular wavelength of the wave, the second harmonic acceleration of the ions decreases to very small levels. An exotic fusion reaction (pT) must be taken into account when evaluating neutron rates. The contribution of fast particles accelerated by ICRF to the plasma rotation was clearly identified, but it is only part of an underlying, and not yet understood, co-current plasma rotation. Progress was made in the physics of ELMs while their effect on the ICRF coupling could be minimized with the conjugate-T matching scheme. The addition of 3 dB couplers is a step in increasing the power capability of the ICRF heating on JET in ELMy plasmas. The installation of an ITER-like, ELM resilient antenna in 2006 will further improve this and be a test of the ICRF scheme for ITER.« less
  • Availability of D-T fusion neutrons at TFTR has offered an opportunity to conduct measurements of both short-lived and long-lived radioactivity of direct interest to ITER and DEMO reactors in a realistic tokamak fusion reactor environment. Materials irradiated, spatial locations, and certain features of activation characteristics at TFTR are described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.
  • A large-aspect-ratio (LAR), midsized, diverted tokamak KT-2 with intense RF heating (5-7 MW) is under conceptual design process at KAERI. The machine parameters are: R/a(m) = 1.4/0.25 (reducible to 0.20), B{sub t} = 3 Tesla, I{sub p} = 500+ kA, current flat-top 4.5 sec at maximum field and current (OH-only). The PF system concept design resulted in five KT-2 operation modes, and allows extended discharges for >30 sec at 2T/200kA in the `5MW HiBS` mode. Construction will start in 1995, and the machine will start operation in 1998. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
  • The neutron activation system (NAS) measures neutron fluence at the first wall and the total neutron flux from the ITER plasma, providing evaluation of the fusion power for all operational phases. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the key components of the NAS for the proper operation of the system, playing a role of transferring encapsulated samples between the capsule loading machine, irradiation stations, counting stations, and disposal bin. For the validation and the optimization of the design, a prototype of the PTS was developed and capsule transfer tests were performed with the developed system.