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Title: Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing

Abstract

Additively manufactured (AM) metals are often highly textured, containing large columnar grains that initiate epitaxially under steep temperature gradients and rapid solidification conditions. These unique microstructures partially account for the massive property disparity existing between AM and conventionally processed alloys. Although equiaxed grains are desirable for isotropic mechanical behavior, the columnar-to-equiaxed transition remains difficult to predict for conventional solidification processes, and much more so for AM. In this study, the effects of laser intensity profile ellipticity on melt track macrostructures and microstructures were studied in 316L stainless steel. Experimental results were supported by temperature gradients and melt velocities simulated using the ALE3D multi-physics code. As a general trend, columnar grains preferentially formed with increasing laser power and scan speed for all beam profiles. However, when conduction mode laser heating occurs, scan parameters that result in coarse columnar microstructures using Gaussian profiles produce equiaxed or mixed equiaxed-columnar microstructures using elliptical profiles. Furthermore, by modulating spatial laser intensity profiles on the fly, site-specific microstructures and properties can be directly engineered into additively manufactured parts.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2]
  1. Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1393688
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1357374
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-713205
Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Acta Materialia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 128; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; additive manufacturing; laser powder-bed fusion; microstructure control; laser modulation; beam shaping

Citation Formats

Roehling, Tien T., Wu, Sheldon S. Q., Khairallah, Saad A., Roehling, John D., Soezeri, S. Stefan, Crumb, Michael F., and Matthews, Manyalibo J. Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2017.02.025.
Roehling, Tien T., Wu, Sheldon S. Q., Khairallah, Saad A., Roehling, John D., Soezeri, S. Stefan, Crumb, Michael F., & Matthews, Manyalibo J. Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing. United States. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2017.02.025.
Roehling, Tien T., Wu, Sheldon S. Q., Khairallah, Saad A., Roehling, John D., Soezeri, S. Stefan, Crumb, Michael F., and Matthews, Manyalibo J. Sun . "Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing". United States. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2017.02.025.
@article{osti_1393688,
title = {Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing},
author = {Roehling, Tien T. and Wu, Sheldon S. Q. and Khairallah, Saad A. and Roehling, John D. and Soezeri, S. Stefan and Crumb, Michael F. and Matthews, Manyalibo J.},
abstractNote = {Additively manufactured (AM) metals are often highly textured, containing large columnar grains that initiate epitaxially under steep temperature gradients and rapid solidification conditions. These unique microstructures partially account for the massive property disparity existing between AM and conventionally processed alloys. Although equiaxed grains are desirable for isotropic mechanical behavior, the columnar-to-equiaxed transition remains difficult to predict for conventional solidification processes, and much more so for AM. In this study, the effects of laser intensity profile ellipticity on melt track macrostructures and microstructures were studied in 316L stainless steel. Experimental results were supported by temperature gradients and melt velocities simulated using the ALE3D multi-physics code. As a general trend, columnar grains preferentially formed with increasing laser power and scan speed for all beam profiles. However, when conduction mode laser heating occurs, scan parameters that result in coarse columnar microstructures using Gaussian profiles produce equiaxed or mixed equiaxed-columnar microstructures using elliptical profiles. Furthermore, by modulating spatial laser intensity profiles on the fly, site-specific microstructures and properties can be directly engineered into additively manufactured parts.},
doi = {10.1016/j.actamat.2017.02.025},
journal = {Acta Materialia},
number = C,
volume = 128,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Feb 12 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Sun Feb 12 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.actamat.2017.02.025

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5 works
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