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Title: On The Early-Time Excess Emission In Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae

Abstract

Here, we present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (~10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2-3 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration ( > 30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations.more » However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [9];  [9];  [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [13];  [1]; ORCiD logo [14] more »; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [15];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [16];  [17]; ORCiD logo [18];  [19]; ORCiD logo [14] « less
  1. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
  2. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). The Niels Bohr Inst., Dark Cosmology Centre
  3. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany)
  4. Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). The Niels Bohr Inst., Dark Cosmology Centre; California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  5. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS
  6. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics
  7. Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy
  8. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
  9. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre, Dept. of Astronomy
  10. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  11. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA (United States)
  12. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  13. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States). Astrophysics Science Division
  14. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  15. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States). Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
  16. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Cosmology Center
  17. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Spitzer Science Center
  18. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  19. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1393607
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1407903
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27777
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; ark:/13030/qt8wd843qh
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; NAS 5-26555; 615929; PF6-17014; AST-1211916; HST-HF-51296.01-A; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 835; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae; PTF 12dam; iPTF13dc; Astronomy and Astrophysics

Citation Formats

Vreeswijk, Paul M., Leloudas, Giorgos, Gal-Yam, Avishay, De Cia, Annalisa, Perley, Daniel A., Quimby, Robert M., Waldman, Roni, Sullivan, Mark, Yan, Lin, Ofek, Eran O., Fremling, Christoffer, Taddia, Francesco, Sollerman, Jesper, Valenti, Stefano, Arcavi, Iair, Howell, D. Andrew, Filippenko, Alexei V., Cenko, S. Bradley, Yaron, Ofer, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Cao, Yi, Ben-Ami, Sagi, Horesh, Assaf, Rubin, Adam, Lunnan, Ragnhild, Nugent, Peter E., Laher, Russ, Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Woźniak, Przemysław, and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. On The Early-Time Excess Emission In Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/58.
Vreeswijk, Paul M., Leloudas, Giorgos, Gal-Yam, Avishay, De Cia, Annalisa, Perley, Daniel A., Quimby, Robert M., Waldman, Roni, Sullivan, Mark, Yan, Lin, Ofek, Eran O., Fremling, Christoffer, Taddia, Francesco, Sollerman, Jesper, Valenti, Stefano, Arcavi, Iair, Howell, D. Andrew, Filippenko, Alexei V., Cenko, S. Bradley, Yaron, Ofer, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Cao, Yi, Ben-Ami, Sagi, Horesh, Assaf, Rubin, Adam, Lunnan, Ragnhild, Nugent, Peter E., Laher, Russ, Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Woźniak, Przemysław, & Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. On The Early-Time Excess Emission In Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/58.
Vreeswijk, Paul M., Leloudas, Giorgos, Gal-Yam, Avishay, De Cia, Annalisa, Perley, Daniel A., Quimby, Robert M., Waldman, Roni, Sullivan, Mark, Yan, Lin, Ofek, Eran O., Fremling, Christoffer, Taddia, Francesco, Sollerman, Jesper, Valenti, Stefano, Arcavi, Iair, Howell, D. Andrew, Filippenko, Alexei V., Cenko, S. Bradley, Yaron, Ofer, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Cao, Yi, Ben-Ami, Sagi, Horesh, Assaf, Rubin, Adam, Lunnan, Ragnhild, Nugent, Peter E., Laher, Russ, Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Woźniak, Przemysław, and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. Wed . "On The Early-Time Excess Emission In Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/58. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393607.
@article{osti_1393607,
title = {On The Early-Time Excess Emission In Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae},
author = {Vreeswijk, Paul M. and Leloudas, Giorgos and Gal-Yam, Avishay and De Cia, Annalisa and Perley, Daniel A. and Quimby, Robert M. and Waldman, Roni and Sullivan, Mark and Yan, Lin and Ofek, Eran O. and Fremling, Christoffer and Taddia, Francesco and Sollerman, Jesper and Valenti, Stefano and Arcavi, Iair and Howell, D. Andrew and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Yaron, Ofer and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Cao, Yi and Ben-Ami, Sagi and Horesh, Assaf and Rubin, Adam and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Nugent, Peter E. and Laher, Russ and Rebbapragada, Umaa D. and Woźniak, Przemysław and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (~10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2-3 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration ( > 30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/58},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 835,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 18 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Jan 18 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (∼10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2–3 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration (>30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. Wemore » construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.« less
  • We present observations of two new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSN-I), iPTF15esb and iPTF16bad, showing late-time Hα emission with line luminosities ofmore » $$(1\mbox{-}3)\times {10}^{41}$$ erg s -1 and velocity widths of (4000-6000) km s -. Including the previously published iPTF13ehe, this makes up a total of three such events to date. iPTF13ehe is one of the most luminous and the slowest evolving SLSNe-I, whereas the other two are less luminous and fast decliners. We interpret this as a result of the ejecta running into a neutral H-shell located at a radius of ~10 16 cm. This implies that violent mass loss must have occurred several decades before the supernova explosion. Such a short time interval suggests that eruptive mass loss could be common shortly before core collapse, and more importantly helium is unlikely to be completely stripped off the progenitor and could be present in the ejecta. It is a mystery why helium features are not detected, even though nonthermal energy sources, capable of ionizing He, may exist as suggested by the O ii absorption series in the early-time spectra. Our late-time spectra (+240 days) appear to have intrinsically lower [O i] 6300 Å luminosities than that of SN2015bn and SN2007bi, which is possibly an indication of less oxygen (<10 M ). The blueshifted Hα emission relative to the hosts for all three events may be in tension with the binary model proposed for iPTF13ehe. Lastly, iPTF15esb has a peculiar light curve (LC) with three peaks separated from one another by ~22 days. The LC undulation is stronger in bluer bands. One possible explanation is ejecta-circumstellar medium interaction.« less
    Cited by 5
  • iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.3434, with a slow-evolving light curve and spectral features similar to SN2007bi. It rises in 83–148 days to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}, then decays slowly at 0.015 mag day{sup −1}. The measured ejecta velocity is ∼ 13,000 km s{sup −1}. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (70–220 M{sub ⊙}), and the total radiative and kinetic energy (E{sub rad} ∼ 10{sup 51} erg, E{sub kin} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 53} erg), are typical of slow-evolving H-poor SLSN events. However,more » the late-time spectrum taken at +251 days (rest, post-peak) reveals a Balmer Hα emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ∼4500 km s{sup −1} and a ∼300 km s{sup −1} blueward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Hα emission with a luminosity of ∼2 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1} as resulting from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a discrete H-rich shell, located at a distance of ∼4 × 10{sup 16} cm from the explosion site. This interaction causes the rest-frame r-band LC to brighten at late times. The fact that the late-time spectra are not completely absorbed by the shock-ionized H-shell implies that its Thomson scattering optical depth is likely ≤1, thus setting upper limits on the shell mass ≤30 M{sub ⊙}. Of the existing models, a Pulsational Pair Instability supernova model can naturally explain the observed 30 M{sub ⊙} H-shell, ejected from a progenitor star with an initial mass of (95–150) M{sub ⊙} about 40 years ago. We estimate that at least ∼15% of all SLSNe-I may have late-time Balmer emission lines.« less
  • iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.3434, with a slow-evolving light curve and spectral features similar to SN2007bi. It rises in 83–148 days to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of ~1.3 × 10 44 erg s -1, then decays slowly at 0.015 mag day -1. The measured ejecta velocity is ~ 13,000 km s -1. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (70–220 M ), and the total radiative and kinetic energy (E rad ~ 10 51 erg, E kin ~ 2 × 10 53 erg), are typical of slow-evolving H-poor SLSN events. However,more » the late-time spectrum taken at +251 days (rest, post-peak) reveals a Balmer Hα emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ~4500 km s -1 and a ~300 km s -1 blueward shift relative to the narrow component. In this paper, we interpret this broad Hα emission with a luminosity of ~2 × 10 41 erg s -1 as resulting from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a discrete H-rich shell, located at a distance of ~4 × 10 16 cm from the explosion site. This interaction causes the rest-frame r-band LC to brighten at late times. The fact that the late-time spectra are not completely absorbed by the shock-ionized H-shell implies that its Thomson scattering optical depth is likely ≤1, thus setting upper limits on the shell mass ≤30 M . Of the existing models, a Pulsational Pair Instability supernova model can naturally explain the observed 30 M H-shell, ejected from a progenitor star with an initial mass of (95–150) M about 40 years ago. Finally, we estimate that at least ~15% of all SLSNe-I may have late-time Balmer emission lines.« less