Measuring galaxy cluster masses with CMB lensing using a Maximum Likelihood estimator: statistical and systematic error budgets for future experiments
Abstract
We develop a Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLE) to measure the masses of galaxy clusters through the impact of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that, at low noise levels in temperature, this optimal estimator outperforms the standard quadratic estimator by a factor of two. For polarization, we show that the Stokes Q/U maps can be used instead of the traditional E and Bmode maps without losing information. We test and quantify the bias in the recovered lensing mass for a comprehensive list of potential systematic errors. Using realistic simulations, we examine the cluster mass uncertainties from CMBcluster lensing as a function of an experiment’s beam size and noise level. We predict the cluster mass uncertainties will be 3  6% for SPT3G, AdvACT, and Simons Array experiments with 10,000 clusters and less than 1% for the CMBS4 experiment with a sample containing 100,000 clusters. The mass constraints from CMB polarization are very sensitive to the experimental beam size and map noise level: for a factor of three reduction in either the beam size or noise level, the lensing signaltonoise improves by roughly a factor of two.
 Authors:
 Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville VIC (Australia). School of Physics
 Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
 Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics (KICP)
 Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics (KICP); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
 Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy, Dept. of Physics
 Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
 Publication Date:
 Research Org.:
 Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
 Sponsoring Org.:
 USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC22); National Science Foundation (NSF); Australian Research Council
 OSTI Identifier:
 1393569
 Grant/Contract Number:
 AC0206CH11357
 Resource Type:
 Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
 Journal Name:
 Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 2017; Journal Issue: 08; Journal ID: ISSN 14757516
 Publisher:
 Institute of Physics (IOP)
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; CMBR polarization; Galaxy clusters; Weak gravitational lensing
Citation Formats
Raghunathan, Srinivasan, Patil, Sanjaykumar, Baxter, Eric J., Bianchini, Federico, Bleem, Lindsey E., Crawford, Thomas M., Holder, Gilbert P., Manzotti, Alessandro, and Reichardt, Christian L. Measuring galaxy cluster masses with CMB lensing using a Maximum Likelihood estimator: statistical and systematic error budgets for future experiments. United States: N. p., 2017.
Web. doi:10.1088/14757516/2017/08/030.
Raghunathan, Srinivasan, Patil, Sanjaykumar, Baxter, Eric J., Bianchini, Federico, Bleem, Lindsey E., Crawford, Thomas M., Holder, Gilbert P., Manzotti, Alessandro, & Reichardt, Christian L. Measuring galaxy cluster masses with CMB lensing using a Maximum Likelihood estimator: statistical and systematic error budgets for future experiments. United States. doi:10.1088/14757516/2017/08/030.
Raghunathan, Srinivasan, Patil, Sanjaykumar, Baxter, Eric J., Bianchini, Federico, Bleem, Lindsey E., Crawford, Thomas M., Holder, Gilbert P., Manzotti, Alessandro, and Reichardt, Christian L. Fri .
"Measuring galaxy cluster masses with CMB lensing using a Maximum Likelihood estimator: statistical and systematic error budgets for future experiments". United States.
doi:10.1088/14757516/2017/08/030.
@article{osti_1393569,
title = {Measuring galaxy cluster masses with CMB lensing using a Maximum Likelihood estimator: statistical and systematic error budgets for future experiments},
author = {Raghunathan, Srinivasan and Patil, Sanjaykumar and Baxter, Eric J. and Bianchini, Federico and Bleem, Lindsey E. and Crawford, Thomas M. and Holder, Gilbert P. and Manzotti, Alessandro and Reichardt, Christian L.},
abstractNote = {We develop a Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLE) to measure the masses of galaxy clusters through the impact of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that, at low noise levels in temperature, this optimal estimator outperforms the standard quadratic estimator by a factor of two. For polarization, we show that the Stokes Q/U maps can be used instead of the traditional E and Bmode maps without losing information. We test and quantify the bias in the recovered lensing mass for a comprehensive list of potential systematic errors. Using realistic simulations, we examine the cluster mass uncertainties from CMBcluster lensing as a function of an experiment’s beam size and noise level. We predict the cluster mass uncertainties will be 3  6% for SPT3G, AdvACT, and Simons Array experiments with 10,000 clusters and less than 1% for the CMBS4 experiment with a sample containing 100,000 clusters. The mass constraints from CMB polarization are very sensitive to the experimental beam size and map noise level: for a factor of three reduction in either the beam size or noise level, the lensing signaltonoise improves by roughly a factor of two.},
doi = {10.1088/14757516/2017/08/030},
journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},
number = 08,
volume = 2017,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 25 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Aug 25 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
Web of Science

We develop a Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLE) to measure the masses of galaxy clusters through the impact of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that, at low noise levels in temperature, this optimal estimator outperforms the standard quadratic estimator by a factor of two. For polarization, we show that the Stokes Q/U maps can be used instead of the traditional E and Bmode maps without losing information. We test and quantify the bias in the recovered lensing mass for a comprehensive list of potential systematic errors. Using realistic simulations, wemore »

Cluster masses from CMB and galaxy weak lensing
Gravitational lensing can be used to directly constrain the projected density profile of galaxy clusters. We discuss possible future constraints using lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization, and compare to results from using galaxy weak lensing. We model the moving lens and kinetic SunyaevZel'dovich signals that confuse the temperature CMB lensing when cluster velocities and angular momenta are unknown, and show how they degrade parameter constraints. The CMB polarization cluster lensing signal is {approx}1 {mu}K for massive clusters and challenging to detect; however it should be significantly cleaner than the temperature signal and may provide themore » 
Statistical analysis of maximum likelihood estimator images of human brain FDG PET studies
The work presented in this paper evaluates the statistical characteristics of regional bias and expected error in reconstructions of real PET data of human brain fluorodeoxiglucose (FDG) studies carried out by the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) method with a robust stopping rule, and compares them with the results of filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstructions and with the method of sieves. The task that the authors have investigated is that of quantifying radioisotope uptake in regionsofinterest (ROI's). They first describe a robust methodology for the use of the MLE method with clinical data which contains only one adjustable parameter: the kernel sizemore » 
Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials
In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 Xray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of nonparametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentrationmore »Cited by 15 
Measuring distance ratios with CMBgalaxy lensing crosscorrelations
We propose a method for cosmographic measurements by combining gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with cosmic shear surveys. We crosscorrelate the galaxy counts in the lens plane with two different source planes: the CMB at z{approx}1100 and galaxies at an intermediate redshift. The ratio of the galaxy count/CMB lensing crosscorrelation to the galaxy count/galaxy lensing crosscorrelation is shown to be a purely geometric quantity, depending only on the distribution function of the source galaxies. By combining Planck, the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, the ratio can be measured to {approx}4% accuracy,more »