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Title: A Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Mismatch Control for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Abstract

A modular multilevel power converter configuration for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed. The converter configuration replaces the conventional bulky line frequency transformer with several high frequency transformers, potentially reducing the balance of systems cost of PV systems. The front-end converter for each port is a neutral-point diode clamped (NPC) multi-level dc-dc dual-active bridge (ML-DAB) which allows maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The integrated high frequency transformer provides the galvanic isolation between the PV and grid side and also steps up the low dc voltage from PV source. Following the ML-DAB stage, in each port, is a NPC inverter. N number of NPC inverters’ outputs are cascaded to attain the per-phase line-to-neutral voltage to connect directly to the distribution grid (i.e., 13.8 kV). The cascaded NPC (CNPC) inverters have the inherent advantage of using lower rated devices, smaller filters and low total harmonic distortion required for PV grid interconnection. The proposed converter system is modular, scalable, and serviceable with zero downtime with lower foot print and lower overall cost. A novel voltage balance control at each module based on power mismatch among N-ports, have been presented and verified in simulation. Analysis and simulation results are presented for the N-portmore » converter. The converter performance has also been verified on a hardware prototype.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1393537
Grant/Contract Number:
EE0006323
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energies (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energies (Basel); Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; dual active bridge; maximum power point tracking (MPPT); multilevel; neutral-point clamped; utility scale photovoltaic (PV) system

Citation Formats

Duman, Turgay, Marti, Shilpa, Moonem, M. A., Kader, Azas Ahmed Rifath Abdul, and Krishnaswami, Hariharan. A Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Mismatch Control for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3390/en10050698.
Duman, Turgay, Marti, Shilpa, Moonem, M. A., Kader, Azas Ahmed Rifath Abdul, & Krishnaswami, Hariharan. A Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Mismatch Control for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems. United States. doi:10.3390/en10050698.
Duman, Turgay, Marti, Shilpa, Moonem, M. A., Kader, Azas Ahmed Rifath Abdul, and Krishnaswami, Hariharan. Wed . "A Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Mismatch Control for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems". United States. doi:10.3390/en10050698. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393537.
@article{osti_1393537,
title = {A Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Mismatch Control for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems},
author = {Duman, Turgay and Marti, Shilpa and Moonem, M. A. and Kader, Azas Ahmed Rifath Abdul and Krishnaswami, Hariharan},
abstractNote = {A modular multilevel power converter configuration for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed. The converter configuration replaces the conventional bulky line frequency transformer with several high frequency transformers, potentially reducing the balance of systems cost of PV systems. The front-end converter for each port is a neutral-point diode clamped (NPC) multi-level dc-dc dual-active bridge (ML-DAB) which allows maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The integrated high frequency transformer provides the galvanic isolation between the PV and grid side and also steps up the low dc voltage from PV source. Following the ML-DAB stage, in each port, is a NPC inverter. N number of NPC inverters’ outputs are cascaded to attain the per-phase line-to-neutral voltage to connect directly to the distribution grid (i.e., 13.8 kV). The cascaded NPC (CNPC) inverters have the inherent advantage of using lower rated devices, smaller filters and low total harmonic distortion required for PV grid interconnection. The proposed converter system is modular, scalable, and serviceable with zero downtime with lower foot print and lower overall cost. A novel voltage balance control at each module based on power mismatch among N-ports, have been presented and verified in simulation. Analysis and simulation results are presented for the N-port converter. The converter performance has also been verified on a hardware prototype.},
doi = {10.3390/en10050698},
journal = {Energies (Basel)},
number = 5,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 17 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed May 17 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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Cited by: 2works
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  • This paper presents a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power conversion system based on a single-phase multilevel inverter. The proposed system fundamentally consists of PV arrays and a single-phase multilevel inverter structure. First, configuration and structural parts of the PV assisted inverter system are introduced in detail. To produce reference output voltage waves, a simple switching strategy based on calculating switching angles is improved. By calculated switching angles, the reference signal is produced as a multilevel shaped output voltage wave. The control algorithm and operational principles of the proposed system are explained. Operating PV arrays in the same load condition is amore » considerable point; therefore a simulation study is performed to arrange the PV arrays. After determining the number and connection types of the PV arrays, the system is configured through the arrangement of the PV arrays. The validity of the proposed system is verified through simulations and experimental study. The results demonstrate that the system can achieve lower total harmonic distortion (THD) on the output voltage and load current, and it is capable of operating synchronous and transferring power values having different characteristic to the grid. Hence, it is suitable to use the proposed configuration as a PV power conversion system in various applications. (author)« less
  • A three-phase modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is presented in this paper. To maximize the solar energy extraction of each PV string, an individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced power supplied to the three-phase system. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is proposed. The three-phase modular cascaded multilevel inverter prototype has been built. Each H-bridge is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate themore » proposed ideas.« less
  • This paper presents a high-efficiency grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) module integrated converter (MIC) system with reduced PV current variation. The proposed PV MIC system consists of a high-efficiency step-up DC-DC converter and a single-phase full-bridge DC-AC inverter. An active-clamping flyback converter with a voltage-doubler rectifier is proposed for the step-up DC-DC converter. The proposed step-up DC-DC converter reduces the switching losses by eliminating the reverse-recovery current of the output rectifying diodes. To reduce the PV current variation introduced by the grid-connected inverter, a PV current variation reduction method is also suggested. The suggested PV current variation reduction method reduces the PVmore » current variation without any additional components. Moreover, for centralized power control of distributed PV MIC systems, a PV power control scheme with both a central control level and a local control level is presented. The central PV power control level controls the whole power production by sending out reference power signals to each individual PV MIC system. The proposed step-up DC-DC converter achieves a high-efficiency of 97.5% at 260 W output power to generate the DC-link voltage of 350 V from the PV voltage of 36.1 V. The PV MIC system including the DC-DC converter and the DC-AC inverter achieves a high-efficiency of 95% with the PV current ripple less than 3% variation of the rated PV current. (author)« less
  • This paper presents a modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel photovoltaic (PV) inverter for single- or three-phase grid-connected applications. The modular cascaded multilevel topology helps to improve the efficiency and flexibility of PV systems. To realize better utilization of PV modules and maximize the solar energy extraction, a distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied to both single-phase and three-phase multilevel inverters, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. For three-phase grid-connected applications, PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced supplied power, leading to unbalanced grid current. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is alsomore » proposed. An experimental three-phase 7-level cascaded H-bridge inverter has been built utilizing 9 H-bridge modules (3 modules per phase). Each H-bridge module is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach.« less
  • This paper presents a steady-state model of MMC for the second-order phase voltage ripple prediction under unbalanced conditions, taking the impact of negative-sequence current control into account. From the steady-state model, a circular relationship is found among current and voltage quantities, which can be used to evaluate the magnitudes and initial phase angles of different circulating current components. Moreover, in order to calculate the circulating current in a point-to-point MMC-based HVdc system under unbalanced grid conditions, the derivation of equivalent dc impedance of an MMC is discussed as well. According to the dc impedance model, an MMC inverter can bemore » represented as a series connected R-L-C branch, with its equivalent resistance and capacitance directly related to the circulating current control parameters. Experimental results from a scaled-down three-phase MMC system under an emulated single-line-to-ground fault are provided to support the theoretical analysis and derived model. In conclusion, this new models provides an insight into the impact of different control schemes on the fault characteristics and improves the understanding of the operation of MMC under unbalanced conditions.« less