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Title: Synthesis of UDP-apiose in Bacteria: The marine phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas pisi

Abstract

The branched-chain sugar apiose was widely assumed to be synthesized only by plant species. In plants, apiose-containing polysaccharides are found in vascularized plant cell walls as the pectic polymers rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan. Apiosylated secondary metabolites are also common in many plant species including ancestral avascular bryophytes and green algae. Apiosyl-residues have not been documented in bacteria. In a screen for new bacterial glycan structures, we detected small amounts of apiose in methanolic extracts of the aerobic phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the pathogenic soil-dwelling bacteria Xanthomonas pisi. Apiose was also present in the cell pellet of X. pisi. Examination of these bacterial genomes uncovered genes with relatively low protein homology to plant UDP-apiose/UDP-xylose synthase (UAS). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these bacterial UAS-like homologs belong in a clade distinct to UAS and separated from other nucleotide sugar biosynthetic enzymes. Recombinant expression of three bacterial UAS-like proteins demonstrates that they actively convert UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-apiose and UDP-xylose. Both UDP-apiose and UDP-xylose were detectable in cell cultures of G. roseus and X. pisi. We could not, however, definitively identify the apiosides made by these bacteria, but the detection of apiosides coupled with the in vivo transcription of bUAS and production of UDP-apiosemore » clearly demonstrate that these microbes have evolved the ability to incorporate apiose into glycans during their lifecycles. While this is the first report to describe enzymes for the formation of activated apiose in bacteria, the advantage of synthesizing apiose-containing glycans in bacteria remains unknown. The characteristics of bUAS and its products are discussed.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]
  1. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) and Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  2. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC), Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Dept. of Plant Biology
  3. Dong-A Univ. (Republic of Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1393313
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1465791
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-93ER20097; FG02-12ER16324
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
PLoS ONE
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Smith, James Amor, Bar-Peled, Maor, and Lee, Seon-Woo. Synthesis of UDP-apiose in Bacteria: The marine phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas pisi. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184953.
Smith, James Amor, Bar-Peled, Maor, & Lee, Seon-Woo. Synthesis of UDP-apiose in Bacteria: The marine phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas pisi. United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184953.
Smith, James Amor, Bar-Peled, Maor, and Lee, Seon-Woo. Wed . "Synthesis of UDP-apiose in Bacteria: The marine phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas pisi". United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184953.
@article{osti_1393313,
title = {Synthesis of UDP-apiose in Bacteria: The marine phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas pisi},
author = {Smith, James Amor and Bar-Peled, Maor and Lee, Seon-Woo},
abstractNote = {The branched-chain sugar apiose was widely assumed to be synthesized only by plant species. In plants, apiose-containing polysaccharides are found in vascularized plant cell walls as the pectic polymers rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan. Apiosylated secondary metabolites are also common in many plant species including ancestral avascular bryophytes and green algae. Apiosyl-residues have not been documented in bacteria. In a screen for new bacterial glycan structures, we detected small amounts of apiose in methanolic extracts of the aerobic phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the pathogenic soil-dwelling bacteria Xanthomonas pisi. Apiose was also present in the cell pellet of X. pisi. Examination of these bacterial genomes uncovered genes with relatively low protein homology to plant UDP-apiose/UDP-xylose synthase (UAS). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these bacterial UAS-like homologs belong in a clade distinct to UAS and separated from other nucleotide sugar biosynthetic enzymes. Recombinant expression of three bacterial UAS-like proteins demonstrates that they actively convert UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-apiose and UDP-xylose. Both UDP-apiose and UDP-xylose were detectable in cell cultures of G. roseus and X. pisi. We could not, however, definitively identify the apiosides made by these bacteria, but the detection of apiosides coupled with the in vivo transcription of bUAS and production of UDP-apiose clearly demonstrate that these microbes have evolved the ability to incorporate apiose into glycans during their lifecycles. While this is the first report to describe enzymes for the formation of activated apiose in bacteria, the advantage of synthesizing apiose-containing glycans in bacteria remains unknown. The characteristics of bUAS and its products are discussed.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0184953},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
number = 9,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1371/journal.pone.0184953

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Cited by: 1 work
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Works referenced in this record:

Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs
journal, September 1997

  • Altschul, Stephen F.; Madden, Thomas L.; Sch√§ffer, Alejandro A.
  • Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 25, Issue 17, p. 3389-3402
  • DOI: 10.1093/nar/25.17.3389