skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Analysis of geometric and electrochemical characteristics of lithium cobalt oxide electrode with different packing densities

Abstract

In order to investigate geometric and electrochemical characteristics of Li ion battery electrode with different packing densities, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2) cathode electrodes were fabricated from a 94:3:3 (wt%) mixture of LiCoO 2, polymeric binder, and super-P carbon black and calendered to different densities. A synchrotron X-ray nano-computed tomography system with a spatial resolution of 58.2 nm at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory was employed to obtain three dimensional morphology data of the electrodes. The morphology data were then quantitatively analyzed to characterize their geometric properties, such as porosity, tortuosity, specific surface area, and pore size distribution. The geometric and electrochemical analysis reveal that high packing density electrodes have smaller average pore size and narrower pore size distribution, which improves the electrical contact between carbon-binder matrix and LiCoO 2 particles. The better contact improves the capacity and rate capability by reducing the possibility of electrically isolated LiCoO 2 particles and increasing the electrochemically active area. The results show that increase of packing density results in higher tortuosity, but electrochemically active area is more crucial to cell performance than tortuosity at up to 3.6 g/cm 3 packing density and 4 C rate.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [1]
  1. Indiana Univ. and Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  2. Indiana Univ. and Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source
  4. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst.
  5. Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (UNIST) (Republic of Korea). School of Energy and Chemical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1393185
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 328; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Calendering; Geometric characteristics; Li ion battery; Packing density; Synchrotron nano-computed tomography

Citation Formats

Lim, Cheolwoong, Yan, Bo, Kang, Huixiao, Song, Zhibin, Lee, Wen Chao, De Andrade, Vincent, De Carlo, Francesco, Yin, Leilei, Kim, Youngsik, and Zhu, Likun. Analysis of geometric and electrochemical characteristics of lithium cobalt oxide electrode with different packing densities. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.07.119.
Lim, Cheolwoong, Yan, Bo, Kang, Huixiao, Song, Zhibin, Lee, Wen Chao, De Andrade, Vincent, De Carlo, Francesco, Yin, Leilei, Kim, Youngsik, & Zhu, Likun. Analysis of geometric and electrochemical characteristics of lithium cobalt oxide electrode with different packing densities. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.07.119.
Lim, Cheolwoong, Yan, Bo, Kang, Huixiao, Song, Zhibin, Lee, Wen Chao, De Andrade, Vincent, De Carlo, Francesco, Yin, Leilei, Kim, Youngsik, and Zhu, Likun. 2016. "Analysis of geometric and electrochemical characteristics of lithium cobalt oxide electrode with different packing densities". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.07.119. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393185.
@article{osti_1393185,
title = {Analysis of geometric and electrochemical characteristics of lithium cobalt oxide electrode with different packing densities},
author = {Lim, Cheolwoong and Yan, Bo and Kang, Huixiao and Song, Zhibin and Lee, Wen Chao and De Andrade, Vincent and De Carlo, Francesco and Yin, Leilei and Kim, Youngsik and Zhu, Likun},
abstractNote = {In order to investigate geometric and electrochemical characteristics of Li ion battery electrode with different packing densities, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode electrodes were fabricated from a 94:3:3 (wt%) mixture of LiCoO2, polymeric binder, and super-P carbon black and calendered to different densities. A synchrotron X-ray nano-computed tomography system with a spatial resolution of 58.2 nm at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory was employed to obtain three dimensional morphology data of the electrodes. The morphology data were then quantitatively analyzed to characterize their geometric properties, such as porosity, tortuosity, specific surface area, and pore size distribution. The geometric and electrochemical analysis reveal that high packing density electrodes have smaller average pore size and narrower pore size distribution, which improves the electrical contact between carbon-binder matrix and LiCoO2 particles. The better contact improves the capacity and rate capability by reducing the possibility of electrically isolated LiCoO2 particles and increasing the electrochemically active area. The results show that increase of packing density results in higher tortuosity, but electrochemically active area is more crucial to cell performance than tortuosity at up to 3.6 g/cm3 packing density and 4 C rate.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.07.119},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 328,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • The impact of calendering process on the geometric characteristics and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrode was investigated in this study. The geometric properties of NMC electrodes with different calendering conditions, such as porosity, pore size distribution, particle size distribution, specific surface area and tortuosity were calculated from the computed tomography data of the electrodes. A synchrotron transmission X-ray microscopy tomography system at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory was employed to obtain the tomography data. The geometric and electrochemical analysis show that calendering can increase the electrochemically active area, which improves rate capability. However, more calenderingmore » will result in crushing of NMC particles, which can reduce the electrode capacity at relatively high C rates. This study shows that the optimum electrochemical performance of NMC electrode at 94:3:3 weight ratio of NMC:binder:carbon black can be achieved by calendering to 3.0 g/cm3 NMC density.« less
  • Uniformly distributed nanoparticles of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized through the simple sol-gel method in presence of neutral surfactant (Tween-80). The powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical method including charge-discharge cycling performance. The powder calcined at a temperature of 900 deg. C for 5 h shows pure phase layered LiCoO{sub 2}. The results show that the particle size is reduced in presence of surfactant as compared to normal sol-gel method. Also, the sample prepared in presence of surfactant and calcined at 900 deg. C for 5 h shows the highest initial discharge capacity (106 mAhmore » g{sup -1}) with good cycling stability as compared to the sample prepared without surfactant which shows the specific discharge capacity of 50 mAh g{sup -1}.« less
  • The impedance of a lithium- and manganese-rich layered transition-metal oxide (MR-NMC) positive electrode, specifically Li 1.2Ni 0.15Mn 0.55Co 0.1O 2, is compared to two other transition-metal layered oxide materials, specifically LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 (NCA) and Li 1.05(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.95O 2 (NMC). A more detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study is conducted on the LMR-NMC electrode, which includes a range of states-of-charge (SOCs) for both current directions (i.e. charge and discharge) and two relaxation times (i.e. hours and one hundred hours) before the EIS sweep. The LMR-NMC electrode EIS studies are supported by half-cell constant current andmore » galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) studies. Two types of electrochemical models are utilized to examine the results. The first type is a lithium ion cell electrochemical model for intercalation active material electrodes that includes a complex active material/electrolyte interfacial structure. In conclusion, the other is a lithium ion half-cell electrochemical model that focuses on the unique composite structure of the bulk LMR-NMC materials.« less