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Title: Oxygen migration during resistance switching and failure of hafnium oxide memristors

Abstract

While the recent establishment of the role of thermophoresis/diffusion-driven oxygen migration during resistance switching in metal oxide memristors provided critical insights required for memristor modeling, extended investigations of the role of oxygen migration during ageing and failure remain to be detailed. Such detailing will enable failure-tolerant design, which can lead to enhanced performance of memristor-based next-generation storage-class memory. Furthermore, we directly observed lateral oxygen migration using in-situ synchrotron x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy of HfO x memristors during initial resistance switching, wear over millions of switching cycles, and eventual failure, through which we determined potential physical causes of failure. Using this information, we reengineered devices to mitigate three failure mechanisms and demonstrated an improvement in endurance of about three orders of magnitude.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]
  1. Hewlett Packard Labs, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1393133
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1349333
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 110; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Kumar, Suhas, Wang, Ziwen, Huang, Xiaopeng, Kumari, Niru, Davila, Noraica, Strachan, John Paul, Vine, David, Kilcoyne, A. L. David, Nishi, Yoshio, and Williams, R. Stanley. Oxygen migration during resistance switching and failure of hafnium oxide memristors. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4974535.
Kumar, Suhas, Wang, Ziwen, Huang, Xiaopeng, Kumari, Niru, Davila, Noraica, Strachan, John Paul, Vine, David, Kilcoyne, A. L. David, Nishi, Yoshio, & Williams, R. Stanley. Oxygen migration during resistance switching and failure of hafnium oxide memristors. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4974535.
Kumar, Suhas, Wang, Ziwen, Huang, Xiaopeng, Kumari, Niru, Davila, Noraica, Strachan, John Paul, Vine, David, Kilcoyne, A. L. David, Nishi, Yoshio, and Williams, R. Stanley. Mon . "Oxygen migration during resistance switching and failure of hafnium oxide memristors". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4974535. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393133.
@article{osti_1393133,
title = {Oxygen migration during resistance switching and failure of hafnium oxide memristors},
author = {Kumar, Suhas and Wang, Ziwen and Huang, Xiaopeng and Kumari, Niru and Davila, Noraica and Strachan, John Paul and Vine, David and Kilcoyne, A. L. David and Nishi, Yoshio and Williams, R. Stanley},
abstractNote = {While the recent establishment of the role of thermophoresis/diffusion-driven oxygen migration during resistance switching in metal oxide memristors provided critical insights required for memristor modeling, extended investigations of the role of oxygen migration during ageing and failure remain to be detailed. Such detailing will enable failure-tolerant design, which can lead to enhanced performance of memristor-based next-generation storage-class memory. Furthermore, we directly observed lateral oxygen migration using in-situ synchrotron x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy of HfOx memristors during initial resistance switching, wear over millions of switching cycles, and eventual failure, through which we determined potential physical causes of failure. Using this information, we reengineered devices to mitigate three failure mechanisms and demonstrated an improvement in endurance of about three orders of magnitude.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4974535},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 10,
volume = 110,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 06 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Mar 06 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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Cited by: 5works
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  • Cited by 5
  • Here we analyzed micrometer-scale titanium-niobium-oxide prototype memristors, which exhibited low write-power (< 3 μW) and energy (< 200 fJ per bit per μm 2), low read-power (~nW), and high endurance ( > millions of cycles). To understand their physico-chemical operating mechanisms, we performed in operando synchrotron X-ray transmission nanoscale spectromicroscopy using an ultra-sensitive time-multiplexed technique. We observed only spatially uniform material changes during cell operation, in sharp contrast to the frequently detected formation of a localized conduction channel in transition-metal-oxide memristors. We also associated the response of assigned spectral features distinctly to non-volatile storage (resistance change) and writing of informationmore » (application of voltage and Joule heating). Lastly, these results provide critical insights into high-performance memristors that will aid in device design, scaling and predictive circuit-modeling, all of which are essential for the widespread deployment of successful memristor applications.« less
  • Due to the favorable operating power, endurance, speed, and density., transition-metal-oxide memristors, or resistive random-access memory (RRAM) switches, are under intense development for storage-class memory. Their commercial deployment critically depends on predictive compact models based on understanding nanoscale physiocochemical forces, which remains elusive and controversial owing to the difficulties in directly observing atomic motions during resistive switching, Here, using scanning transmission synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy to study in situ switching of hafnium oxide memristors, we directly observed the formation of a localized oxygen-deficiency-derived conductive channel surrounded by a low-conductivity ring of excess oxygen. Subsequent thermal annealing homogenized the segregated oxygen, resettingmore » the cells toward their as-grown resistance state. We show that the formation and dissolution of the conduction channel are successfully modeled by radial thermophoresis and Fick diffusion of oxygen atoms driven by Joule heating. This confirmation and quantification of two opposing nanoscale radial forces that affect bipolar memristor switching are important components for any future physics-based compact model for the electronic switching of these devices.« less
  • Oxygen migration in tantalum oxide, a promising next-generation storage material, is studied using in operando x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy and is used to microphysically describe accelerated evolution of conduction channel and device failure. Furthermore, the resulting ring-like patterns of oxygen concentration are modeled using thermophoretic forces and Fick diffusion, establishing the critical role of temperature-activated oxygen migration that has been under question lately.
  • © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Oxygen migration in tantalum oxide, a promising next-generation storage material, is studied using in operando X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy. This approach allows a physical description of the evolution of conduction channel and eventual device failure. The observed ring-like patterns of oxygen concentration are modeled using thermophoretic forces and Fick diffusion, establishing the critical role of temperature-driven oxygen migration.