skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh

Abstract

Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods. In this paper, we have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorption-line variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results. Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorptionmore » features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 10 19 cm from the explosion. Conclusions. Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. Finally, the nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those distances.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [4];  [6];  [1];  [7];  [7];  [1];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [1];  [11];  [12] more »; ORCiD logo [13] « less
  1. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)
  2. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
  3. Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)
  4. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  5. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA (United States)
  8. Univ. of Turku (Finland); Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  9. Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)
  10. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  11. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  12. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  13. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1393067
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1407901
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27745
Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361; ark:/13030/qt8v96d3ch; TRN: US1702105
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 592; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae; SN 2013gh; dust; extinction; circumstellar matter; iPTF 13dge; Astronomy and Astrophysics

Citation Formats

Ferretti, Raphael, Amanullah, R., Goobar, A., Johansson, J., Vreeswijk, P. M., Butler, R. P., Cao, Y., Cenko, S. B., Doran, G., Filippenko, A. V., Freeland, E., Hosseinzadeh, G., Howell, D. A., Lundqvist, P., Mattila, S., Nordin, J., Nugent, P. E., Petrushevska, T., Valenti, S., Vogt, S., and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628351.
Ferretti, Raphael, Amanullah, R., Goobar, A., Johansson, J., Vreeswijk, P. M., Butler, R. P., Cao, Y., Cenko, S. B., Doran, G., Filippenko, A. V., Freeland, E., Hosseinzadeh, G., Howell, D. A., Lundqvist, P., Mattila, S., Nordin, J., Nugent, P. E., Petrushevska, T., Valenti, S., Vogt, S., & Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628351.
Ferretti, Raphael, Amanullah, R., Goobar, A., Johansson, J., Vreeswijk, P. M., Butler, R. P., Cao, Y., Cenko, S. B., Doran, G., Filippenko, A. V., Freeland, E., Hosseinzadeh, G., Howell, D. A., Lundqvist, P., Mattila, S., Nordin, J., Nugent, P. E., Petrushevska, T., Valenti, S., Vogt, S., and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. Mon . "Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628351. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393067.
@article{osti_1393067,
title = {Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh},
author = {Ferretti, Raphael and Amanullah, R. and Goobar, A. and Johansson, J. and Vreeswijk, P. M. and Butler, R. P. and Cao, Y. and Cenko, S. B. and Doran, G. and Filippenko, A. V. and Freeland, E. and Hosseinzadeh, G. and Howell, D. A. and Lundqvist, P. and Mattila, S. and Nordin, J. and Nugent, P. E. and Petrushevska, T. and Valenti, S. and Vogt, S. and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R.},
abstractNote = {Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods. In this paper, we have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorption-line variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results. Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions. Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. Finally, the nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those distances.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201628351},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 592,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 18 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Jul 18 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share: