skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Failure of local thermal equilibrium in quantum friction

Abstract

Recent progress in manipulating atomic and condensed matter systems has instigated a surge of interest in nonequilibrium physics, including many-body dynamics of trapped ultracold atoms and ions, near-field radiative heat transfer, and quantum friction. Under most circumstances the complexity of such nonequilibrium systems requires a number of approximations to make theoretical descriptions tractable. In particular, it is often assumed that spatially separated components of a system thermalize with their immediate surroundings, although the global state of the system is out of equilibrium. This powerful assumption reduces the complexity of nonequilibrium systems to the local application of well-founded equilibrium concepts. While this technique appears to be consistent for the description of some phenomena, we show that it fails for quantum friction by underestimating by approximately 80% the magnitude of the drag force. Here, our results show that the correlations among the components of driven, but steady-state, quantum systems invalidate the assumption of local thermal equilibrium, calling for a critical reexamination of this approach for describing the physics of nonequilibrium systems.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. Max-Born Inst., Berlin (Germany)
  2. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics
  3. Univ. of Postdam, Potsdam (Germany). Inst. of Physics and Astronomy
  4. Max-Born Inst., Berlin (Germany); Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Institut fur Physik, AG Theoretische Optik & Photonik
  5. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; German Research Foundation (DFG); European Union (EU); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1392802
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-22415
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; PCIG14-GA-2013-631571; SCHM 1049/7-1
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 117; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Material Science

Citation Formats

Intravaia, Francesco, Behunin, Ryan, Henkel, Carsten, Busch, Kurt, and Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto. Failure of local thermal equilibrium in quantum friction. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.100402.
Intravaia, Francesco, Behunin, Ryan, Henkel, Carsten, Busch, Kurt, & Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto. Failure of local thermal equilibrium in quantum friction. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.100402.
Intravaia, Francesco, Behunin, Ryan, Henkel, Carsten, Busch, Kurt, and Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto. Thu . "Failure of local thermal equilibrium in quantum friction". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.100402. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1392802.
@article{osti_1392802,
title = {Failure of local thermal equilibrium in quantum friction},
author = {Intravaia, Francesco and Behunin, Ryan and Henkel, Carsten and Busch, Kurt and Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto},
abstractNote = {Recent progress in manipulating atomic and condensed matter systems has instigated a surge of interest in nonequilibrium physics, including many-body dynamics of trapped ultracold atoms and ions, near-field radiative heat transfer, and quantum friction. Under most circumstances the complexity of such nonequilibrium systems requires a number of approximations to make theoretical descriptions tractable. In particular, it is often assumed that spatially separated components of a system thermalize with their immediate surroundings, although the global state of the system is out of equilibrium. This powerful assumption reduces the complexity of nonequilibrium systems to the local application of well-founded equilibrium concepts. While this technique appears to be consistent for the description of some phenomena, we show that it fails for quantum friction by underestimating by approximately 80% the magnitude of the drag force. Here, our results show that the correlations among the components of driven, but steady-state, quantum systems invalidate the assumption of local thermal equilibrium, calling for a critical reexamination of this approach for describing the physics of nonequilibrium systems.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.100402},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
issn = {0031-9007},
number = 10,
volume = 117,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 12 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Theory of Radiative Heat Transfer between Closely Spaced Bodies
journal, November 1971


Fluorescence in nonlocal dissipative periodic structures
journal, May 2015


The relativistic theory of fluctuation electromagnetic interactions of moving neutral particles with a flat surface
journal, October 2003

  • Dedkov, G. V.; Kyasov, A. A.
  • Physics of the Solid State, Vol. 45, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1134/1.1620084

Spontaneous Emission by Rotating Objects: A Scattering Approach
journal, June 2012


Measurement of the Temperature Dependence of the Casimir-Polder Force
journal, February 2007


Thermalization and its mechanism for generic isolated quantum systems
journal, April 2008

  • Rigol, Marcos; Dunjko, Vanja; Olshanii, Maxim
  • Nature, Vol. 452, Issue 7189
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06838

The Casimir effect: From quantum to critical fluctuations
journal, April 2009


One-Loop Dominance in the Imaginary Part of the Polarizability: Application to Blackbody and Noncontact van der Waals Friction
journal, January 2015


Theory of the interaction forces and the radiative heat transfer between moving bodies
journal, October 2008


Fluctuation theorems in driven open quantum systems
journal, February 2009

  • Talkner, Peter; Campisi, Michele; Hänggi, Peter
  • Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, Vol. 2009, Issue 02
  • DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2009/02/P02025

Fluctuations and Response of Nonequilibrium States
journal, July 2009


Fully covariant radiation force on a polarizable particle
journal, February 2013


Casimir friction force and energy dissipation for moving harmonic oscillators
journal, September 2010


Shearing the vacuum - quantum friction
journal, November 1997


Quantum Cherenkov radiation and noncontact friction
journal, October 2013


Stochastic thermodynamics: principles and perspectives
journal, January 2008


Macroscopic theory of electromagnetic fluctuations and stationary radiative heat transfer
journal, April 1984


Quantum friction and fluctuation theorems
journal, May 2014


Near-field radiative heat transfer and noncontact friction
journal, October 2007


Casimir forces and non-Newtonian gravitation
journal, October 2006


Relativistic theory of fluctuating electromagnetic slowing down of neutral spherical particles moving in close vicinity to a flat surface
journal, October 2002

  • Kyasov, A. A.; Dedkov, G. V.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 195, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-583X(02)00955-2

Casimir friction at zero and finite temperatures
journal, March 2014


Quantum electrodynamics near an interface
journal, September 1984


Fluctuation-dissipation theorem in nonequilibrium steady states
journal, January 2010


Casimir-Polder forces: A nonperturbative approach
journal, November 2004


Restoring a fluctuation-dissipation theorem in a nonequilibrium steady state
journal, May 2006


Irreversibility and Generalized Noise
journal, July 1951


Magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms
journal, February 2007