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Title: Poloidal radiation asymmetries during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection on the DIII-D tokamak

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [2];  [3]
  1. General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608 San Diego, California 92186-5608, USA
  2. University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417, USA
  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1392717
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; FC02-04ER54698; FG02-07ER54917
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 10; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-02-14 13:10:25; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Eidietis, N. W., Izzo, V. A., Commaux, N., Hollmann, E. M., and Shiraki, D. Poloidal radiation asymmetries during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection on the DIII-D tokamak. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5002701.
Eidietis, N. W., Izzo, V. A., Commaux, N., Hollmann, E. M., & Shiraki, D. Poloidal radiation asymmetries during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection on the DIII-D tokamak. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5002701.
Eidietis, N. W., Izzo, V. A., Commaux, N., Hollmann, E. M., and Shiraki, D. Sun . "Poloidal radiation asymmetries during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection on the DIII-D tokamak". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5002701.
@article{osti_1392717,
title = {Poloidal radiation asymmetries during disruption mitigation by massive gas injection on the DIII-D tokamak},
author = {Eidietis, N. W. and Izzo, V. A. and Commaux, N. and Hollmann, E. M. and Shiraki, D.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1063/1.5002701},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 10,
volume = 24,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sun Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on September 19, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • One of the major challenges that the ITER tokamak will have to face during its operations are disruptions. During the last few years, it has been proven that the global consequences of a disruption can be mitigated by the injection of large quantities of impurities. But one aspect that has been difficult to study was the possibility of local effects inside the torus during such injection that could damage a portion of the device despite the global heat losses and generated currents remaining below design parameter. 3D MHD simulations show that there is a potential for large toroidal asymmetries ofmore » the radiated power during impurity injection due to the interaction between the particle injection plume and a large n = 1 mode. Another aspect of 3D effects is the potential occurrence of Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), which could induce large poloidal heat load asymmetries. This potential deleterious effect of 3D phenomena has been studied on the DIII-D tokamak, thanks to the implementation of a multi-location massive gas injection (MGI) system as well as new diagnostic capabilities. This study showed the existence of a correlation between the location of the n = 1 mode and the local heat load on the plasma facing components but shows also that this effect is much smaller than anticipated (peaking factor of ∼1.1 vs 3-4 according to the simulations). There seems to be no observable heat load on the first wall of DIII-D at the location of the impurity injection port as well as no significant radiation asymmetries whether one or 2 valves are fired. This study enabled the first attempt of mitigation of a VDE using impurity injection at different poloidal locations. The results showed a more favorable heat deposition when the VDE is mitigated early (right at the onset) by impurity injection. No significant improvement of the heat load mitigation efficiency has been observed for late particle injection whether the injection is done “in the way” of the VDE (upward VDE mitigated by injection from the upper part of the vessel vs the lower part) or not.« less
  • Measurements from the DIII-D tokamak show that toroidal radiation asymmetries during fast shutdown by massive gas injection (MGI) are largely driven by n = 1 magnetohydrodynamic modes during the thermal quench. The phenomenology of these modes, which are driven unstable by pro le changes as the thermal energy is quenched, is described based on detailed magnetic measurements. Here, the toroidal evolution of the dominantly n = 1 perturbation is understood to be a function of three parameters: the location of the MGI port, pre-MGI plasma rotation, and n = 1 error elds. Here, the resulting level of radiation asymmetry inmore » these DIII-D plasmas is modest, with a toroidal peaking factor (TPF) of 1:2 ± 0:1 for the total thermal quench energy and 1:4 ± 0:3 for the peak radiated power, both of which are below the estimated limit for ITER (TPF ≈ 2).« less
  • One of the major challenges that the ITER tokamak will have to face during its operations are disruptions. During the last few years, it has been proven that the global consequences of a disruption can be mitigated by the injection of large quantities of impurities. But one aspect that has been difficult to study was the possibility of local effects inside the torus during such injection that could damage a portion of the device despite the global heat losses and generated currents remaining below design parameter. 3D MHD simulations show that there is a potential for large toroidal asymmetries ofmore » the radiated power during impurity injection due to the interaction between the particle injection plume and a large n=1 mode. Another aspect of 3D effects is the potential occurrence of Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), which could induce large poloidal heat load asymmetries. This potential deleterious effect of 3D phenomena has been studied on the DIII-D tokamak thanks to the implementation of a multi-location massive gas injection (MGI) system as well as new diagnostic capabilities. This study showed the existence of a correlation between the location of the n=1 mode and the local heat load on the plasma facing components but shows also that this effect is much smaller than anticipated (peaking factor of ~1.1 vs 3-4 according to the simulations). There seems to be no observable heat load on the first wall of DIII-D at the location of the impurity injection port as well as no significant radiation asymmetries whether one or 2 valves are fired. This study enabled the first attempt of mitigation of a VDE using impurity injection at different poloidal locations. The results showed a more favorable heat deposition when the VDE is mitigated early (right at the onset) by impurity injection. As a result, no significant improvement of the heat load mitigation efficiency has been observed for late particle injection whether the injection is done “in the way” of the VDE (upward VDE mitigated by injection from the upper part of the vessel vs the lower part) or not.« less
  • Injection of massive quantities of gas is a promising technique for fast shutdown of ITER for the purpose of avoiding divertor and first wall damage from disruptions. Previous experiments using massive gas injection (MGI) to terminate discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated rapid shutdown with reduced wall heating and halo currents (relative to natural disruptions) and with very small runaway electron (RE) generation [1]. Figure 1 shows time traces which give an overview of shutdown time scales. Typically, of order 5 x 10{sup 22} Ar neutrals are fired over a pulse of 25 ms duration into stationary (non-disrupting) discharges.more » The observed results are consistent with the following scenario: within several ms of the jet trigger, sufficient Ar neutrals are delivered to the plasma to cause the edge temperature to collapse, initiating the inward propagation of a cold front. The exit flow of the jet [Fig. 1(a)] has a {approx} 9 ms rise time; so the quantity of neutrals which initiates the edge collapse is small (<10{sup 20}). When the cold front reaches q {approx} 2 surface, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are destabilized [2], mixing hot core plasma with edge impurities. Here, q is the safety factor. Most (>90%) of the plasma thermal energy is lost via impurity radiation during this thermal quench (TQ) phase. Conducted heat loads to the wall are low because of the cold edge temperature. After the TQ, the plasma is very cold (of order several eV), so conducted wall (halo) currents are low, even if the current channel contacts the wall. The plasma current profile broadens and begins decaying resistively. The decaying current generates a toroidal electric field which can accelerate REs; however, RE beam formation appears to be limited in MGI shutdowns. Presently, it is thought that the conducted heat flux and halo current mitigation qualities of the MGI shutdown technique will scale well to a reactor-sized tokamak. However, because of the larger RE gain from avalanching and the presence of a RE seed population due to Compton-scattered fast electrons, it is possible that a RE beam can be formed well into the CQ, after the flux surfaces initially destroyed by the TQ MHD have had time to heal. Crucial MGI issues to be studied in present devices are therefore the formation, amplification, and transport of RE and the transport of impurities into the core plasma (important because the presence of impurities can, via collisional drag, help suppress RE amplification). In the study of impurity transport, both neutral delivery (directly driven into the core by the jet pressure) and ion delivery (mixed into the core by MHD) are of interest, as both contribute to RE drag.« less