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Title: Using data from Landsat, MODIS, VIIRS and PhenoCams to monitor the phenology of California oak/grass savanna and open grassland across spatial scales

Abstract

tThe Mediterranean-type oak/grass savanna of California is composed of widely spaced oak trees withunderstory grasses. These savanna regions are interspersed with large areas of more open grasslands.The ability of remotely sensed data (with various spatial resolutions) to monitor the phenology in thesewater-limited oak/grass savannas and open grasslands is explored over the 2012–2015 timeframe usingdata from Landsat (30 m), the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS – gridded 500 m),and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS – gridded 500 m) data. Vegetation phenologydetected from near-ground level, webcam based PhenoCam imagery from two sites in the Ameriflux Net-work (long-term flux measurement network of the Americas) (Tonzi Ranch and Vaira Ranch) is upscaled,using a National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial image (1 m), to evaluate the detection ofvegetation phenology of these savannas and grasslands with the satellite data. Results show that the Nor-malized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series observed from the satellite sensors are all stronglycorrelated with the PhenoCam NDVI values from Tonzi Ranch (R2> 0.67) and Vaira Ranch (R2> 0.81). How-ever, the different viewing geometries and spatial coverage of the PhenoCams and the various satellitesensors may cause differences in the absolute phenological transition dates. Analysis of frequency his-tograms of phenological datesmore » illustrate that the phenological dates in the relatively homogeneous opengrasslands are consistent across the different spatial resolutions, in contrast, the relatively heterogeneousoak/grass savannas display has somewhat later greenup, maturity, and dormancy dates at 30 m resolu-tion than at 500 m scale due to the different phenological cycles exhibited by the overstory trees and theunderstory grasses. In addition, phenologies derived from the MODIS view angle corrected reflectance(Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance – NBAR) and the newly developed VIIRS NBAR are shown to providecomparable phenological dates (majority absolute bias ≤2 days) in this area.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [7];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)
  2. Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)
  3. South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)
  4. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  5. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  6. Enironmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley, Aosta (Italy)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1392711
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1426772
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0016011
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 237-238; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-1923
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Savannas; Land surface phenology; near surface webcams; Satellite sensor resolution; MODIS; VIIRS; Landsat

Citation Formats

Liu, Yan, Hill, Michael J., Zhang, Xiaoyang, Wang, Zhuosen, Richardson, Andrew D., Hufkens, Koen, Filippa, Gianluca, Baldocchi, Dennis D., Ma, Siyan, Verfaillie, Joseph, and Schaaf, Crystal B. Using data from Landsat, MODIS, VIIRS and PhenoCams to monitor the phenology of California oak/grass savanna and open grassland across spatial scales. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.02.026.
Liu, Yan, Hill, Michael J., Zhang, Xiaoyang, Wang, Zhuosen, Richardson, Andrew D., Hufkens, Koen, Filippa, Gianluca, Baldocchi, Dennis D., Ma, Siyan, Verfaillie, Joseph, & Schaaf, Crystal B. Using data from Landsat, MODIS, VIIRS and PhenoCams to monitor the phenology of California oak/grass savanna and open grassland across spatial scales. United States. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.02.026.
Liu, Yan, Hill, Michael J., Zhang, Xiaoyang, Wang, Zhuosen, Richardson, Andrew D., Hufkens, Koen, Filippa, Gianluca, Baldocchi, Dennis D., Ma, Siyan, Verfaillie, Joseph, and Schaaf, Crystal B. Fri . "Using data from Landsat, MODIS, VIIRS and PhenoCams to monitor the phenology of California oak/grass savanna and open grassland across spatial scales". United States. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.02.026.
@article{osti_1392711,
title = {Using data from Landsat, MODIS, VIIRS and PhenoCams to monitor the phenology of California oak/grass savanna and open grassland across spatial scales},
author = {Liu, Yan and Hill, Michael J. and Zhang, Xiaoyang and Wang, Zhuosen and Richardson, Andrew D. and Hufkens, Koen and Filippa, Gianluca and Baldocchi, Dennis D. and Ma, Siyan and Verfaillie, Joseph and Schaaf, Crystal B.},
abstractNote = {tThe Mediterranean-type oak/grass savanna of California is composed of widely spaced oak trees withunderstory grasses. These savanna regions are interspersed with large areas of more open grasslands.The ability of remotely sensed data (with various spatial resolutions) to monitor the phenology in thesewater-limited oak/grass savannas and open grasslands is explored over the 2012–2015 timeframe usingdata from Landsat (30 m), the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS – gridded 500 m),and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS – gridded 500 m) data. Vegetation phenologydetected from near-ground level, webcam based PhenoCam imagery from two sites in the Ameriflux Net-work (long-term flux measurement network of the Americas) (Tonzi Ranch and Vaira Ranch) is upscaled,using a National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial image (1 m), to evaluate the detection ofvegetation phenology of these savannas and grasslands with the satellite data. Results show that the Nor-malized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series observed from the satellite sensors are all stronglycorrelated with the PhenoCam NDVI values from Tonzi Ranch (R2> 0.67) and Vaira Ranch (R2> 0.81). How-ever, the different viewing geometries and spatial coverage of the PhenoCams and the various satellitesensors may cause differences in the absolute phenological transition dates. Analysis of frequency his-tograms of phenological dates illustrate that the phenological dates in the relatively homogeneous opengrasslands are consistent across the different spatial resolutions, in contrast, the relatively heterogeneousoak/grass savannas display has somewhat later greenup, maturity, and dormancy dates at 30 m resolu-tion than at 500 m scale due to the different phenological cycles exhibited by the overstory trees and theunderstory grasses. In addition, phenologies derived from the MODIS view angle corrected reflectance(Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance – NBAR) and the newly developed VIIRS NBAR are shown to providecomparable phenological dates (majority absolute bias ≤2 days) in this area.},
doi = {10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.02.026},
journal = {Agricultural and Forest Meteorology},
number = C,
volume = 237-238,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.02.026

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • tThe Mediterranean-type oak/grass savanna of California is composed of widely spaced oak trees withunderstory grasses. These savanna regions are interspersed with large areas of more open grasslands.The ability of remotely sensed data (with various spatial resolutions) to monitor the phenology in thesewater-limited oak/grass savannas and open grasslands is explored over the 2012–2015 timeframe usingdata from Landsat (30 m), the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS – gridded 500 m),and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS – gridded 500 m) data. Vegetation phenologydetected from near-ground level, webcam based PhenoCam imagery from two sites in the Ameriflux Net-work (long-term flux measurement networkmore » of the Americas) (Tonzi Ranch and Vaira Ranch) is upscaled,using a National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial image (1 m), to evaluate the detection ofvegetation phenology of these savannas and grasslands with the satellite data. Results show that the Nor-malized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series observed from the satellite sensors are all stronglycorrelated with the PhenoCam NDVI values from Tonzi Ranch (R2> 0.67) and Vaira Ranch (R2> 0.81). How-ever, the different viewing geometries and spatial coverage of the PhenoCams and the various satellitesensors may cause differences in the absolute phenological transition dates. Analysis of frequency his-tograms of phenological dates illustrate that the phenological dates in the relatively homogeneous opengrasslands are consistent across the different spatial resolutions, in contrast, the relatively heterogeneousoak/grass savannas display has somewhat later greenup, maturity, and dormancy dates at 30 m resolu-tion than at 500 m scale due to the different phenological cycles exhibited by the overstory trees and theunderstory grasses. In addition, phenologies derived from the MODIS view angle corrected reflectance(Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance – NBAR) and the newly developed VIIRS NBAR are shown to providecomparable phenological dates (majority absolute bias ≤2 days) in this area.« less
  • Cited by 7
  • Characterizing vegetation phenology is a highly significant problem, due to its importance in regulating ecosystem carbon cycling, interacting with climate changes, and decision-making of croplands managements. While ground based sensors, such as the AmeriFlux sensors, can provide measurements at high temporal resolution (every hour) and can be used to accurately calculate vegetation phenology indices, they are limited to only a few sites. Remote sensing data, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), collected using the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), can provide global coverage, though at a much coarser temporal resolution (16 days). In this study we use datamore » mining based time series segmentation methods to derive phenology indices from NDVI data, and compare it with the phenology indices derived from the AmeriFlux data using a widely used model fitting approach. Results show a significant correlation (as high as 0.60) between the indices derived from these two different data sources. This study demonstrates that data driven methods can be effectively employed to provide realistic estimates of vegetation phenology indices using periodic time series data and has the potential to be used at large spatial scales and for long-term remote sensing data.« less
  • The association between spectral reflectance and canopy processes remains challenging for quantifying large-scale canopy phenological cycles in tropical forests. In this paper, we used a tower-mounted hyperspectral camera in an eastern Amazon forest to assess how canopy spectral signals of three species are linked with phenological processes in the 2012 dry season. We explored different approaches to disentangle the spectral components of canopy phenology processes and analyze their variations over time using 17 images acquired by the camera. The methods included linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA); principal component analysis (PCA); continuum removal (CR); and first-order derivative analysis. In addition, threemore » vegetation indices potentially sensitive to leaf flushing, leaf loss and leaf area index (LAI) were calculated: the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the entitled Green-Red Normalized Difference (GRND) index. We inspected also the consistency of the camera observations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and available phenological data on new leaf production and LAI of young, mature and old leaves simulated by a leaf demography-ontogeny model. The results showed a diversity of phenological responses during the 2012 dry season with related changes in canopy structure and greenness values. Because of the differences in timing and intensity of leaf flushing and leaf shedding, Erisma uncinatum, Manilkara huberi and Chamaecrista xinguensis presented different green vegetation (GV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) SMA fractions; distinct PCA scores; changes in depth, width and area of the 681-nm chlorophyll absorption band; and variations over time in the EVI, GRND and NDVI. At the end of dry season, GV increased for Erisma uncinatum, while NPV increased for Chamaecrista xinguensis. For Manilkara huberi, the NPV first increased in the beginning of August and then decreased toward September with new foliage. Variations in red-edge position were not statistically significant between the species and across dates at the 95% confidence level. The camera data were affected by view-illumination effects, which reduced the SMA shade fraction over time. When MODIS data were corrected for these effects using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm (MAIAC), we observed an EVI increase toward September that closely tracked the modeled LAI of mature leaves (3–5 months). Compared to the EVI, the GRND was a better indicator of leaf flushing because the modeled production of new leaves peaked in August and then declined in September following the GRND closely. Finally, while the EVI was more related to changes in mature leaf area, the GRND was more associated with new leaf flushing.« less