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Title: The influence of local oil exploration, regional wildfires, and long range transport on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska

Abstract

The Arctic is warming at an alarming rate, yet the processes that contribute to enhanced warming are not well understood. Arctic aerosols have been targeted in studies for decades due to their consequential impacts on the energy budget directly and indirectly through their ability to modulate cloud microphysics. Even with the breadth of knowledge afforded from these previous studies, aerosols and their effects remain poorly quantified, especially in the rapidly-changing Arctic. Additionally, many previous studies involved use of ground-based measurements, and due to the frequent stratified nature of the Arctic atmosphere, brings into question the representativeness of these datasets aloft. Here, we report on airborne observations from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Fifth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V) campaign along the North Slope of Alaska during the summer of 2015. Contrary to previous evidence that the Alaskan Arctic summertime air is relatively pristine, we show how local oil extraction activities, 2015’s central Alaskan wildfires, and to a lesser extent, long-range transport introduce aerosols and trace gases higher in concentration than previously reported in Arctic haze measurements to the North Slope. Although these sources were either episodic or localized, they serve as abundant aerosol sources that havemore » the potential to impact a larger spatial scale after emission.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1392265
Report Number(s):
BNL-114317-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7375; R&D Project: 2019‐BNL-EE630EECA-Budg; KP1701000
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; SC0013306
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (Online); Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7375
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Creamean, Jessie M., Maahn, Maximilian, de Boer, Gijs, McComiskey, Allison, Sedlacek, Arthur J., and Feng, Yan. The influence of local oil exploration, regional wildfires, and long range transport on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.5194/acp-2017-594.
Creamean, Jessie M., Maahn, Maximilian, de Boer, Gijs, McComiskey, Allison, Sedlacek, Arthur J., & Feng, Yan. The influence of local oil exploration, regional wildfires, and long range transport on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska. United States. doi:10.5194/acp-2017-594.
Creamean, Jessie M., Maahn, Maximilian, de Boer, Gijs, McComiskey, Allison, Sedlacek, Arthur J., and Feng, Yan. Thu . "The influence of local oil exploration, regional wildfires, and long range transport on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska". United States. doi:10.5194/acp-2017-594. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1392265.
@article{osti_1392265,
title = {The influence of local oil exploration, regional wildfires, and long range transport on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska},
author = {Creamean, Jessie M. and Maahn, Maximilian and de Boer, Gijs and McComiskey, Allison and Sedlacek, Arthur J. and Feng, Yan},
abstractNote = {The Arctic is warming at an alarming rate, yet the processes that contribute to enhanced warming are not well understood. Arctic aerosols have been targeted in studies for decades due to their consequential impacts on the energy budget directly and indirectly through their ability to modulate cloud microphysics. Even with the breadth of knowledge afforded from these previous studies, aerosols and their effects remain poorly quantified, especially in the rapidly-changing Arctic. Additionally, many previous studies involved use of ground-based measurements, and due to the frequent stratified nature of the Arctic atmosphere, brings into question the representativeness of these datasets aloft. Here, we report on airborne observations from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Fifth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V) campaign along the North Slope of Alaska during the summer of 2015. Contrary to previous evidence that the Alaskan Arctic summertime air is relatively pristine, we show how local oil extraction activities, 2015’s central Alaskan wildfires, and to a lesser extent, long-range transport introduce aerosols and trace gases higher in concentration than previously reported in Arctic haze measurements to the North Slope. Although these sources were either episodic or localized, they serve as abundant aerosol sources that have the potential to impact a larger spatial scale after emission.},
doi = {10.5194/acp-2017-594},
journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jul 06 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jul 06 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • Here, the Arctic is warming at an alarming rate, yet the processes that contribute to the enhanced warming are not well understood. Arctic aerosols have been targeted in studies for decades due to their consequential impacts on the energy budget, both directly and indirectly through their ability to modulate cloud microphysics. Even with the breadth of knowledge afforded from these previous studies, aerosols and their effects remain poorly quantified, especially in the rapidly changing Arctic. Additionally, many previous studies involved use of ground-based measurements, and due to the frequent stratified nature of the Arctic atmosphere, brings into question the representativenessmore » of these datasets aloft. Here, we report on airborne observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Fifth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V) field campaign along the North Slope of Alaska during the summer of 2015. Contrary to previous evidence that the Alaskan Arctic summertime air is relatively pristine, we show how local oil extraction activities, 2015's central Alaskan wildfires, and, to a lesser extent, long-range transport introduce aerosols and trace gases higher in concentration than previously reported in Arctic haze measurements to the North Slope. Although these sources were either episodic or localized, they serve as abundant aerosol sources that have the potential to impact a larger spatial scale after emission.« less
  • Here, the Arctic is warming at an alarming rate, yet the processes that contribute to the enhanced warming are not well understood. Arctic aerosols have been targeted in studies for decades due to their consequential impacts on the energy budget, both directly and indirectly through their ability to modulate cloud microphysics. Even with the breadth of knowledge afforded from these previous studies, aerosols and their effects remain poorly quantified, especially in the rapidly changing Arctic. Additionally, many previous studies involved use of ground-based measurements, and due to the frequent stratified nature of the Arctic atmosphere, brings into question the representativenessmore » of these datasets aloft. Here, we report on airborne observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Fifth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V) field campaign along the North Slope of Alaska during the summer of 2015. Contrary to previous evidence that the Alaskan Arctic summertime air is relatively pristine, we show how local oil extraction activities, 2015's central Alaskan wildfires, and, to a lesser extent, long-range transport introduce aerosols and trace gases higher in concentration than previously reported in Arctic haze measurements to the North Slope. Although these sources were either episodic or localized, they serve as abundant aerosol sources that have the potential to impact a larger spatial scale after emission.« less
  • Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. Allmore » of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group's consensus value for the initial permeability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH+HYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the predicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water salinity (5 ppt), and formation temperature (3.3–3.9 °C). Finally, this paper presents the approach and results of extrapolating regional forward production modeling from history-matching efforts on the results from a single well test.« less