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Title: Preparing and Testing a Magnetic Antimicrobial Silver Nanocomposite for Water Disinfection To Gain Experience at the Nanochemistry–Microbiology Interface

Abstract

In this article, we describe a 2 h introductory laboratory procedure that prepares a novel magnetic antimicrobial activated carbon nanocomposite in which nanoscale sized magnetite and silver particles are incorporated (MACAg). The MACAg nanocomposite has achieved the synergistic properties derived from its components and demonstrated its applicability as an effective and recoverable antimicrobial agent for water disinfection. The principle is successfully illustrated by a significant reduction in the number of microbes in an Escherichia coli (E. coli) solution of 2 × 10 6 colony forming units following its treatment with MACAg for 10 min. The exercise allows the college students to (1) be introduced to an exciting class of advanced materials, known as nanocomposites, at an early stage, (2) gain working experiences at nanochemistry–microbiology interface, and (3) see the use and experience the fun of chemistry. The experiment uses readily available materials, can be run in a general or introductory chemistry laboratory environment, and is well received and enjoyed by the students. Lastly, the experiment is also suitable for advanced high school students.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States). Math & Science Department
  2. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Neuroscience Department
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Instrumentation Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1392217
Report Number(s):
BNL-114170-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9584; KA-04
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Chemical Education
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9584
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Applications of Chemistry; Bioinorganic Chemistry; First-Year Undergraduate/General; Hands-On Learning/Manipulatives; Interdisciplinary/Multidisciplinary; Laboratory Instruction; Magnetic Properties; Materials Science; Nanotechnology; Second-Year Undergraduate; Water/Water Chemistry

Citation Formats

Furlan, Ping Y., Fisher, Adam J., Melcer, Michael E., Furlan, Alexander Y., and Warren, John B. Preparing and Testing a Magnetic Antimicrobial Silver Nanocomposite for Water Disinfection To Gain Experience at the Nanochemistry–Microbiology Interface. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00692.
Furlan, Ping Y., Fisher, Adam J., Melcer, Michael E., Furlan, Alexander Y., & Warren, John B. Preparing and Testing a Magnetic Antimicrobial Silver Nanocomposite for Water Disinfection To Gain Experience at the Nanochemistry–Microbiology Interface. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00692.
Furlan, Ping Y., Fisher, Adam J., Melcer, Michael E., Furlan, Alexander Y., and Warren, John B. Wed . "Preparing and Testing a Magnetic Antimicrobial Silver Nanocomposite for Water Disinfection To Gain Experience at the Nanochemistry–Microbiology Interface". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00692. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1392217.
@article{osti_1392217,
title = {Preparing and Testing a Magnetic Antimicrobial Silver Nanocomposite for Water Disinfection To Gain Experience at the Nanochemistry–Microbiology Interface},
author = {Furlan, Ping Y. and Fisher, Adam J. and Melcer, Michael E. and Furlan, Alexander Y. and Warren, John B.},
abstractNote = {In this article, we describe a 2 h introductory laboratory procedure that prepares a novel magnetic antimicrobial activated carbon nanocomposite in which nanoscale sized magnetite and silver particles are incorporated (MACAg). The MACAg nanocomposite has achieved the synergistic properties derived from its components and demonstrated its applicability as an effective and recoverable antimicrobial agent for water disinfection. The principle is successfully illustrated by a significant reduction in the number of microbes in an Escherichia coli (E. coli) solution of 2 × 106 colony forming units following its treatment with MACAg for 10 min. The exercise allows the college students to (1) be introduced to an exciting class of advanced materials, known as nanocomposites, at an early stage, (2) gain working experiences at nanochemistry–microbiology interface, and (3) see the use and experience the fun of chemistry. The experiment uses readily available materials, can be run in a general or introductory chemistry laboratory environment, and is well received and enjoyed by the students. Lastly, the experiment is also suitable for advanced high school students.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00692},
journal = {Journal of Chemical Education},
number = 4,
volume = 94,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 29 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 29 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the development of innovative, low-cost and highly efficient water disinfection technologies that may replace or enhance the conventional methods. In this study, we introduce a novel procedure for preparing a bifunctional activated carbon nanocomposite in which nanoscale-sized magnetic magnetite and antimicrobial silver nanoparticles are incorporated (MACAg). The antimicrobial efficacy of the nanocomposite was tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli). MACAg (0.5 g, 0.04% Ag) was found to remove and kill 10 6–10 7 CFU (colony-forming units) in 30 min via a shaking test and the removing and killing rate of the nanocomposites increasedmore » with increasing silver content and decreased with increasing CFU. The inhibition zone tests revealed, among the relevant components, only Ag nanoparticles and Ag + ions showed antimicrobial activities. The MACAg was easily recoverable from treated water due to its magnetic properties and was able to remove and kill 10 6 CFU after multiple-repeated use. The MACAg nanocomposite also demonstrated its feasibility and applicability for treating a surface water containing 10 5 CFU. Combining low cost due to easy synthesis, recoverability, and reusability with high antimicrobial efficiency, MACAg may provide a promising water disinfection technology that will find wide applications.« less
  • Silver and platinum were incorporated within diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films reveals that the metals self-assemble into particulate nanocomposite structures. Nanoindentation testing has shown that diamondlike carbon-silver films exhibit hardness and Young's modulus values of approximately 37 GPa and 333 GPa, respectively. DLC-silver-platinum films exhibited antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. Diamondlike carbon-biofunctional metal nanocomposite films have a variety of potential medical and antimicrobial applications.
  • The development of innovative water disinfection strategies is of utmost importance to prevent outbreaks of waterborne diseases related to poor treatment of (drinking) water. Recently, the association of silver nanoparticles with the bacterial cell surface of Lactobacillus fermentum (referred to as biogenic silver or bio-Ag{sup 0}) has been reported to exhibit antiviral properties. The microscale bacterial carrier matrix serves as a scaffold for Ag{sup 0} particles, preventing aggregation during encapsulation. In this study, bio-Ag{sup 0} was immobilized in different microporous PVDF membranes using two different pre-treatments of bio-Ag{sup 0} and the immersion-precipitation method. Inactivation of UZ1 bacteriophages using these membranesmore » was successfully demonstrated and was most probably related to the slow release of Ag{sup +} from the membranes. At least a 3.4 log decrease of viruses was achieved by application of a membrane containing 2500 mg bio-Ag{sub powder}{sup 0} m{sup -2} in a submerged plate membrane reactor operated at a flux of 3.1 L m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Upon startup, the silver concentration in the effluent initially increased to 271 {micro}g L{sup -1} but after filtration of 31 L m{sup -2}, the concentration approached the drinking water limit (= 100 {micro}g L{sup -1}). A virus decline of more than 3 log was achieved at a membrane flux of 75 L m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, showing the potential of this membrane technology for water disinfection on small scale. In biogenic silver, silver nanoparticles are attached to a bacterial carrier matrix. Bio-Ag{sup 0} was successfully immobilized in PVDF membranes using immersion-precipitation. The antiviral activity of this material was demonstrated in a plate membrane reactor. The antimicrobial mechanism was most probably related to the slow release of Ag{sup +} ions. The membranes can be applied for treatment of limited volumes of contaminated water.« less
  • The development of innovative water disinfection strategies is of utmost importance to prevent outbreaks of waterborne diseases related to poor treatment of (drinking) water. Recently, the association of silver nanoparticles with the bacterial cell surface of Lactobacillus fermentum (referred to as biogenic silver or bio-Ag{sup 0}) has been reported to exhibit antiviral properties. The microscale bacterial carrier matrix serves as a scaffold for Ag{sup 0} particles, preventing aggregation during encapsulation. In this study, bio-Ag{sup 0} was immobilized in different microporous PVDF membranes using two different pre-treatments of bio-Ag{sup 0} and the immersion-precipitation method. Inactivation of UZ1 bacteriophages using these membranesmore » was successfully demonstrated and was most probably related to the slow release of Ag{sup +} from the membranes. At least a 3.4 log decrease of viruses was achieved by application of a membrane containing 2500 mg bio-Ag{sup 0}{sub powder} m{sup -2} in a submerged plate membrane reactor operated at a flux of 3.1 L m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Upon startup, the silver concentration in the effluent initially increased to 271 {mu}g L{sub -1} but after filtration of 31 L m{sup -2}, the concentration approached the drinking water limit (= 100 {mu}g L{sup -1}). A virus decline of more than 3 log was achieved at a membrane flux of 75 L m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, showing the potential of this membrane technology for water disinfection on small scale.« less
  • Contaminated drinking water has serious implications to the human health that could lead to death. The rapid growth of bacterial contamination in drinking water is alarming, and yet a robust and cost effective method with less limitation has not been developed. The current study is aimed at evaluating the performance of nanoclay composites dispersed in chitosan biopolymer as an antibacterial material. The performances of the composites were evaluated using the batch kinetic studies. Three composites of Ag-CtsB, ZnO-CtsB and Ag/ZnO-CtsB were prepared and evaluated against gram negative Escherichia coli and gram positive Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. The composites were characterized bymore » powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and BET surface area measurements. Antibacterial activity results showed that the composites can be a potent bactericide material for water disinfection as they are highly effective against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria tested. Whereas both Ag-CtsB and ZnO-CtsB composites showed good antibacterial activity against bacteria with removal efficiency from 51%, best antibacterial activity was observed with Ag/ZnO-CtsB composite with removal efficiency from 78%. The results revealed that Ag/ZnO-CtsB composite is a promising bactericide that is highly effective against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria tested.« less